The Confidential Reasons for Lord Caitanya's Appearance
In this chapter of the epic Caitanya-caritamrta, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami has stressed that Lord Caitanya appeared for three principal purposes of His own. The first purpose was to relish the position of Srimati Radharani, who is the prime reciprocator of transcendental love of Sri Krsna. Lord Krsna is the reservoir of transcendental loving transactions with Srimati Radharani. The subject of those loving transactions is the Lord Himself, and Radharani is the object. Thus the subject, the Lord, wanted to relish the loving mellow in the position of the object, Radharani.
The second reason for His appearance was to understand the transcendental mellow of Himself. Lord Krsna is all sweetness. Radharani's attraction for Krsna is sublime, and to experience that attraction and understand the transcendental sweetness of Himself, He accepted the mentality of Radharani.
The third reason that Lord Caitanya appeared was to enjoy the bliss tasted by Radharani. The Lord thought that undoubtedly Radharani enjoyed His company and He enjoyed the company of Radharani, but the exchange of transcendental mellow between the spiritual couple was more pleasing to Srimati Radharani than to Sri Krsna. Radharani felt more transcendental pleasure in the company of Krsna than He could understand without taking Her position, but for Sri Krsna to enjoy in the position of Srimati Radharani was impossible because that position was completely foreign to Him. Krsna is the transcendental male, and Radharani is the transcendental female. Therefore, to know the transcendental pleasure of loving Krsna, Lord Krsna Himself appeared as Lord Caitanya, accepting the emotions and bodily luster of Srimati Radharani.
Lord Caitanya appeared to fulfill these confidential desires and also to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, and to answer the call of Advaita Prabhu. These were secondary reasons.
Sri Svarupa Damodara Gosvami was the principal figure among Lord Caitanya's confidential devotees. The records of his diary have revealed these confidential purposes of the Lord. These revelations have been confirmed by the statements of Srila Rupa Gosvami in his various prayers and poems.
This chapter also specifically describes the difference between lust and love. The transactions of Krsna and Radha are completely different from material lust. Therefore the author has very clearly distinguished between them.
sri-caitanya-prasadena--by the mercy of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tat--of Him; rupasya--of the form; vinirnayam--complete determination; balah--a child; api--even; kurute--makes; sastram--the revealed scriptures; drstva--having seen; vraja-vilasinah--who enjoys the pastimes of Vraja.
By the mercy of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, even a foolish child can fully describe the real nature of Lord Krsna, the enjoyer of the pastimes of Vraja, according to the vision of the revealed scriptures.
One can ascertain the meaning of this Sanskrit sloka only when one is endowed with the causeless mercy of Lord Caitanya. Lord Sri Krsna, being the absolute Personality of Godhead, cannot be exposed to the mundane instruments of vision. He reserves the right not to be exposed by the intellectual feats of nondevotees. Notwithstanding this truth, even a small child can easily understand Lord Sri Krsna and His transcendental pastimes in the land of Vrndavana by the grace of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
jaya jaya--all glory; sri-caitanya--to Lord Caitanya; jaya--all glory; nityananda--to Lord Nityananda; jaya--all glory; advaita-candra--to Advaita Acarya; jaya--all glory; gaura-bhakta-vrnda--to the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
All glory to Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. All glory to Lord Nityananda. All glory to Sri Advaita Acarya. And all glory to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya.
Although this is true, this is but the external reason for the Lord's incarnation. Please hear one other reason--the confidential reason--for the Lord's appearance.
In the Third Chapter, fourth verse, it has been clearly said that Lord Caitanya appeared in order to distribute love of Krsna and the chanting of His transcendental holy name, Hare Krsna. That was the secondary purpose of Lord Caitanya's appearance. The real reason is different, as we shall see in this chapter.
purve--previously; yena--as; prthivira--of the earth; bhara--burden; haribare--to take away; krsna--Lord Krsna; avatirna--incarnated; haila--was; sastrete--the scriptures; pracare--proclaim.
The scriptures proclaim that Lord Krsna previously descended to take away the burden of the earth.
svayam-bhagavanera karma nahe bhara-harana
sthiti-karta visnu karena jagat-palana
svayam-bhagavanera--of the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; karma--the business; nahe--is not; bhara-harana--taking away the burden; sthiti-karta--the maintainer; visnu--Lord Visnu; karena--does; jagat-palana--protection of the universe.
To take away this burden, however, is not the work of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The maintainer, Lord Visnu, is the one who protects the universe.
kintu krsnera yei haya avatara-kala
bhara-harana-kala tate ha-ila misala
But the time to lift the burden of the world mixed with the time for Lord Krsna's incarnation.
We have information from the Bhagavad-gita that the Lord appears at particular intervals to adjust a time-worn spiritual culture. Lord Sri Krsna appeared at the end of Dvapara-yuga to regenerate the spiritual culture of human society and also to manifest His transcendental pastimes. Visnu is the authorized Lord who maintains the created cosmos, and He is also the principal Deity who makes adjustments for improper administration in the cosmic creation. Sri Krsna is the primeval Lord, and He appears not to make such administrative adjustments but only to exhibit His transcendental pastimes and thus attract the fallen souls back home, back to Godhead.
However, the time for administrative rectification and the time for Lord Sri Krsna's appearance coincided at the end of the last Dvapara-yuga. Therefore when Sri Krsna appeared, Visnu, the Lord of maintenance, also merged in Him because all the plenary portions and parts of the absolute Personality of Godhead merge in Him during His appearance.
purna bhagavan avatare yei kale
ara saba avatara tante asi' mile
purna--full; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; avatare--incarnates; yei--that; kale--at the time; ara--other; saba--all; avatara--incarnations; tante--in Him; asi'--coming; mile--meet.
When the complete Supreme Personality of Godhead descends, all other incarnations of the Lord meet together within Him.
narayana, catur-vyuha, matsyady-avatara
yuga-manvantaravatara, yata ache ara
sabe asi' krsna-ange haya avatirna
aiche avatare krsna bhagavan purna
narayana--Lord Narayana; catuh-vyuha--the four expansions; matsya-adi--beginning with Matsya; avatara--the incarnations; yuga-manv-antara-avatara--the yuga and manv-antara incarnations; yata--as many as; ache--there are; ara--other; sabe--all; asi'--coming; krsna-ange--in the body of Lord Krsna; haya--are; avatirna--incarnated; aiche--in this way; avatare--incarnates; krsna--Lord Krsna; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; purna--full.
Lord Narayana, the four primary expansions [Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha], Matsya and the other lila incarnations, the yuga-avataras, the manv-antara incarnations and as many other incarnations as there are--all descend in the body of Lord Krsna. In this way the complete Supreme Godhead, Lord Krsna Himself, appears.
ataeva visnu takhana krsnera sarire
visnu-dvare kare krsna asura-samhare
ataeva--therefore; visnu--Lord Visnu; takhana--at that time; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sarire--in the body; visnu-dvare--by Lord Visnu; kare--does; krsna--Lord Krsna; asura-samhare--killing the demons.
At that time, therefore, Lord Visnu is present in the body of Lord Krsna, and Lord Krsna kills the demons through Him.
anusanga-karma ei asura-marana
ye lagi' avatara, kahi se mula karana
rasika-sekhara krsna parama-karuna
ei dui hetu haite icchara udgama
prema-rasa--of the mellow of love of God; niryasa--the essence; karite--to do; asvadana--tasting; raga-marga--the path of spontaneous attraction; bhakti--devotional service; loke--in the world; karite--to do; pracarana--propagation; rasika-sekhara--the supremely jubilant; krsna--Lord Krsna; parama-karuna--the most merciful; ei--these; dui--two; hetu--reasons; haite--from; icchara--of desire; udgama--the birth.
The Lord's desire to appear was born from two reasons: He wanted to taste the sweet essence of the mellows of love of God, and He wanted to propagate devotional service in the world on the platform of spontaneous attraction. Thus He is known as supremely jubilant and as the most merciful of all.
During the period of Lord Krsna's appearance, the killing of asuras or nonbelievers such as Kamsa and Jarasandha was done by Visnu, who was within the person of Sri Krsna. Such apparent killing by Lord Sri Krsna took place as a matter of course and was an incidental activity for Him. But the real purpose of Lord Krsna's appearance was to stage a dramatic performance of His transcendental pastimes at Vrajabhumi, thus exhibiting the highest limit of transcendental mellow in the exchanges of reciprocal love between the living entity and the Supreme Lord. These reciprocal exchanges of mellows are called raga-bhakti, or devotional service to the Lord in transcendental rapture. Lord Sri Krsna wants to make known to all the conditioned souls that He is more attracted by raga-bhakti than vidhi-bhakti, or devotional service under scheduled regulations. It is said in the Vedas (Taittiriya Upanisad 2.7), raso vai sah: the Absolute Truth is the reservoir for all kinds of reciprocal exchanges of loving sentiments. He is also causelessly merciful, and He wants to bestow upon us this privilege of raga-bhakti. Thus He appeared as His own internal energy. He was not forced to appear by any extraneous force.
aisvarya-jnanete saba jagat misrita
aisvarya-sithila-preme nahi mora prita
aisvarya jnanete--with knowledge of majesty; saba--all; jagat--the universe; misrita--mixed; aisvarya-sithila--weakened by majesty; preme--in love; nahi--there is not; mora--My; prita--pleasure.
[Lord Krsna thought:] "All the universe is filled with the conception of My majesty, but love weakened by that sense of majesty does not satisfy Me."
amare isvara mane, apanake hina
tara preme vasa ami na ha-i adhina
amare--Me; isvara--the Lord; mane--regards; apanake--himself; hina--low; tara--of him; preme--by the love; vasa--controlled; ami--I; na ha-i--am not; adhina--subservient.
"If one regards Me as the Supreme Lord and himself as a subordinate, I do not become subservient to his love, nor can it control Me."
amake ta' ye ye bhakta bhaje yei bhave
tare se se bhave bhaji,----e mora svabhave
amake--Me; ta'--certainly; ye ye--whatever; bhakta--devotee; bhaje--worships; yei--which; bhave--in the mood; tare--him; se se--that; bhave--in the mood; bhaji--I reciprocate; e--this; mora--My; svabhave--in the nature.
"In whatever transcendental mellow My devotee worships Me, I reciprocate with him. That is My natural behavior."
The Lord, by His inherent nature, reveals Himself before His devotees according to their inherent devotional service. The Vrndavana pastimes demonstrated that although generally people worship God with reverence, the Lord is more pleased when a devotee thinks of Him as his pet son, personal friend or most dear fianci and renders service unto Him with such natural affection. The Lord becomes a subordinate object of love in such transcendental relationships. Such pure love of Godhead is unadulterated by any tinge of superfluous nondevotional desires and is not mixed with any sort of fruitive action or empiric philosophical speculation. It is pure and natural love of Godhead, spontaneously aroused in the absolute stage. This devotional service is executed in a favorable atmosphere freed from material affection.
ye yatha mam prapadyante
tams tathaiva bhajamy aham
manusyah partha sarvasah
ye--all who; yatha--as; mam--unto Me; prapadyante--surrender; tan--them; tatha--so; eva--certainly; bhajami--reward; aham--I; mama--My; vartma--path; anuvartante--follow; manusyah--all men; partha--O son of Prtha; sarvasah--in all respects.
" 'In whatever way My devotees surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Prtha.' "
In the Fourth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gita Lord Krsna affirms that formerly (some 120 million years before the Battle of Kuruksetra) He explained the mystic philosophy of the Gita to the sun-god. The message was received through the chain of disciplic succession, but in course of time, the chain being broken somehow or other, Lord Sri Krsna appeared again and taught Arjuna the truths of the Bhagavad-gita. At that time the Lord spoke this verse (Bg. 4.11) to His friend Arjuna.
mora putra, mora sakha, mora prana-pati
ei-bhave yei more kare suddha-bhakti
apanake bada mane, amare sama-hina
sei bhave ha-i ami tahara adhina
mora--my; putra--son; mora--my; sakha--friend; mora--my; prana-pati--lord of life; ei bhave--in this way; yei--those who; more--unto Me; kare--do; suddha-bhakti--pure devotion; apanake--himself; bada--great; mane--he regards; amare--Me; sama--equal; hina--or lower; sei bhave--in that way; ha-i--am; ami--I; tahara--to him; adhina--subordinate.
"If one cherishes pure loving devotion to Me, thinking of Me as his son, his friend or his beloved, regarding himself as great and considering Me his equal or inferior, I become subordinate to him."
In the Caitanya-caritamrta three kinds of devotional service are described--namely, bhakti (ordinary devotional service), suddha-bhakti (pure devotional service) and viddha-bhakti (mixed devotional service).
When devotional service is executed with some material purpose, involving fruitive activities, mental speculations or mystic yoga, it is called mixed or adulterated devotional service. Besides bhakti-yoga, the Bhagavad-gita also describes karma-yoga, jnana-yoga and dhyana-yoga. Yoga means linking with the Supreme Lord, which is possible only through devotion. Fruitive activities ending in devotional service, philosophical speculation ending in devotional service, and the practice of mysticism ending in devotional service are known respectively as karma-yoga, jnana-yoga and dhyana-yoga. But such devotional service is adulterated by the three kinds of material activities.
For those grossly engaged in identifying the body as the self, pious activity, or karma-yoga, is recommended. For those who identify the mind with the self, philosophical speculation, or jnana-yoga, is recommended. But devotees standing on the spiritual platform have no need of such material conceptions of adulterated devotion. Adulterated devotional service does not directly aim for love of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore service performed strictly in conformity with the revealed scriptures is better than such viddha-bhakti because it is free from all kinds of material contamination. It is executed in Krsna consciousness, solely to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Those who are spontaneously devoted to the Lord and have no aims for material gain are called attracted devotees. They are spontaneously attracted to the service of the Lord, and they follow in the footsteps of self-realized souls. Their pure devotion (suddha-bhakti), manifested from pure love of Godhead, surpasses the regulative principles of the authoritative scriptures. Sometimes loving ecstasy transcends regulative principles; such ecstasy, however, is completely on the spiritual platform and cannot be imitated. The regulative principles help ordinary devotees rise to the stage of perfect love of Godhead. Pure love for Krsna is the perfection of pure devotion, and pure devotional service is identical with spontaneous devotional service.
Flawless execution of regulative principles is exhibited in the Vaikuntha planets. By strictly executing these principles one can be elevated to the Vaikuntha planets. But spontaneous pure loving service is found in Krsnaloka alone.
mayi bhaktir hi bhutanam
distya yad asin mat-sneho
mayi--to Me; bhaktih--devotional service; hi--certainly; bhutanam--of the living beings; amrtatvaya--the eternal life; kalpate--brings about; distya--by good fortune; yat--which; asit--was; mat--for Me; snehah--the affection; bhavatinam--of all of you; mat--of Me; apanah--the obtaining.
" 'Devotional service rendered to Me by the living beings revives their eternal life. O My dear damsels of Vraja, your affection for Me is your good fortune, for it is the only means by which you have obtained My favor.' "
Pure devotional service is represented in the activities of the residents of Vrajabhumi (Vrndavana). During a solar eclipse, the Lord came from Dvaraka and met the inhabitants of Vrndavana at Samanta-pancaka. The meeting was intensely painful for the damsels of Vrajabhumi because Lord Krsna had apparently left them to reside at Dvaraka. But the Lord obligingly acknowledged the pure devotional service of the damsels of Vraja by speaking this verse (Bhag. 10.82.44).
mata more putra-bhave karena bandhana
atihina-jnane kare lalana palana
mata--mother; more--Me; putra-bhave--in the position of a son; karena--does; bandhana--binding; ati-hina-jnane--in thinking very poor; kare--does; lalana--nourishing; palana--protecting.
"Mother sometimes binds Me as her son. She nourishes and protects Me, thinking Me utterly helpless."
sakha suddha-sakhye kare, skandhe arohana
tumi kon bada loka,----tumi ami sama
sakha--the friend; suddha-sakhye--in pure friendship; kare--does; skandhe--on the shoulders; arohana--mounting; tumi--You; kon--what; bada--big; loka--person; tumi--You; ami--I; sama--the same.
"My friends climb on My shoulders in pure friendship, saying, 'What kind of big man are You? You and I are equal.' "
priya yadi mana kari' karaye bhartsana
veda-stuti haite hare sei mora mana
"If My beloved consort reproaches Me in a sulky mood, that steals My mind from the reverent hymns of the Vedas."
According to the Upanisads, all living entities are dependent on the supreme living entity, the Personality of Godhead. As it is said (Katha Upanisad 5.3), nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam eko bahunam yo vidadhati kaman: one eternal living entity supports all the other eternal living entities. Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead maintains all the other living entities, they remain subordinate to the Lord, even when joined with Him in the reciprocation of loving affairs.
But in the course of exchanging transcendental love of the highest purity, sometimes the subordinate devotee tries to predominate over the predominator. One who lovingly engages with the Supreme Lord as if His mother or father sometimes supersedes the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Similarly, His fianci or lover sometimes supersedes the position of the Lord. But such attempts are exhibitions of the highest love. Only out of pure love does the subordinate lover of the Supreme Personality of Godhead chide Him. The Lord, enjoying this chiding, takes it very nicely. The exhibition of natural love makes such activities very enjoyable. In worship of the Supreme Lord with veneration there is no manifestation of such natural love because the devotee considers the Lord his superior.
Regulative principles in devotional service are meant for those who have not invoked their natural love of Godhead. When natural love arises, all regulative methods are surpassed, and pure love is exhibited between the Lord and the devotee. Although on such a platform of love the devotee sometimes appears to predominate over the Lord or transgress regulative principles, such dealings are far more advanced than ordinary dealings through regulative principles with awe and veneration. A devotee who is actually free from all designations due to complete attachment in love for the Supreme exhibits spontaneous love for Godhead, which is always superior to the devotion of regulative principles.
The informal language used between lover and beloved is significant of pure affection. When devotees worship their beloved as the most venerable object, spontaneous loving sentiments are observed to be lacking. A neophyte devotee who follows the Vedic instructions that regulate those who lack pure love of Godhead may superficially seem more exalted than a devotee in spontaneous love of Godhead. But in fact such spontaneous pure love is far superior to regulated devotional service. Such pure love of Godhead is always glorious in all respects, more so than reverential devotional service rendered by a less affectionate devotee.
ei suddha-bhakta lana karimu avatara
kariba vividha-vidha adbhuta vihara
vaikunthadye nahi ye ye lilara pracara
se se lila kariba, yate mora camatkara
ei--these; suddha-bhakta--pure devotees; lana--taking; karimu--I shall make; avatara--incarnation; kariba--I shall do; vividha-vidha--various kinds; adbhuta--wonderful; vihara--pastimes; vaikuntha-adye--in the Vaikuntha planets, etc.; nahi--not; ye ye--whatever; lilara--of the pastimes; pracara--broadcasting; se se--those; lila--pastimes; kariba--I shall perform; yate--in which; mora--My; camatkara--wonder.
"Taking these pure devotees with Me, I shall descend and sport in various wonderful ways, unknown even in Vaikuntha. I shall broadcast such pastimes by which even I am amazed."
Lord Krsna in the form of Lord Caitanya educates His devotees to develop progressively to the stage of pure devotional service. Thus He appears periodically as a devotee to take part in various wonderful activities depicted in His sublime philosophy and teachings.
There are innumerable Vaikuntha planets in the spiritual sky, and in all of them the Lord accepts the service rendered by His eternal devotees in a reverential mood. Therefore Lord Sri Krsna presents His most confidential pastimes as He enjoys them in His transcendental realm. Such pastimes are so attractive that they attract even the Lord, and thus He relishes them in the form of Lord Caitanya.
mo-visaye--on the subject of Me; gopi-ganera--of the gopis; upapati--of a paramour; bhave--in the position; yoga-maya--yogamaya, Lord Krsna's internal potency; karibeka--will make; apana--her own; prabhave--by the influence.
"The influence of yogamaya will inspire the gopis with the sentiment that I am their paramour."
Yogamaya is the name of the internal potency that makes the Lord forget Himself and become an object of love for His pure devotee in different transcendental mellows. This yogamaya potency creates a spiritual sentiment in the minds of the damsels of Vraja by which they think of Lord Krsna as their paramour. This sentiment is never to be compared to mundane illicit sexual love. It has nothing to do with sexual psychology, although the pure love of such devotees seems to be sexual. One should know for certain that nothing can exist in this cosmic manifestation that has no real counterpart in the spiritual field. All material manifestations are emanations of the Transcendence. The erotic principles of amorous love reflected in mixed material values are perverted reflections of the reality of spirit, but one cannot understand the reality unless one is sufficiently educated in the spiritual science.
amiha na jani taha, na jane gopi-gana
dunhara rupa-gune dunhara nitya hare mana
amiha--I; na jani--shall not know; taha--that; na jane--will not know; gopi-gana--the gopis; dunhara--of the two; rupa-gune--the beauty and qualities; dunhara--of the two; nitya--always; hare--carry away; mana--the minds.
"Neither the gopis nor I shall notice this, for our minds will always be entranced by one another's beauty and qualities."
In the spiritual sky the Vaikuntha planets are predominated by Narayana. His devotees have the same features He does, and the exchange of devotion there is on the platform of reverence. But above all these Vaikuntha planets is Goloka, or Krsnaloka, where the original Personality of Godhead, Krsna, fully manifests His pleasure potency in free loving affairs. Since the devotees in the material world know almost nothing about these affairs, the Lord desires to show these affairs to them.
In Goloka Vrndavana there is an exchange of love known as parakiya-rasa. It is something like the attraction of a married woman for a man other than her husband. In the material world this sort of relationship is most abominable because it is a perverted reflection of the parakiya-rasa in the spiritual world, where it is the highest kind of loving affair. Such feelings between the devotee and the Lord are presented by the influence of yogamaya. The Bhagavad-gita states that devotees of the highest grade are under the care of daiva-maya, or yogamaya: mahatmanas tu mam partha daivim prakrtim asritah (Bg. 9.13). Those who are actually great souls (mahatmas) are fully absorbed in Krsna consciousness, always engaged in the service of the Lord. They are under the care of daivi-prakrti, or yogamaya. Yogamaya creates a situation in which the devotee is prepared to transgress all regulative principles simply to love Krsna. A devotee naturally does not like to transgress the laws of reverence for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but by the influence of yogamaya he is prepared to do anything to love the Supreme Lord better.
Those under the spell of the material energy cannot at all appreciate the activities of yogamaya, for a conditioned soul can hardly understand the pure reciprocation between the Lord and His devotee. But by executing devotional service under the regulative principles, one can become very highly elevated and then begin to appreciate the dealings of pure love under the management of yogamaya.
In the spiritual loving sentiment induced by the yogamaya potency, both Lord Sri Krsna and the damsels of Vraja forget themselves in spiritual rapture. By the influence of such forgetfulness, the attractive beauty of the gopis plays a prominent part in the transcendental satisfaction of the Lord, who has nothing to do with mundane sex. Because spiritual love of Godhead is above everything mundane, the gopis superficially seem to transgress the codes of mundane morality. This perpetually puzzles mundane moralists. Therefore yogamaya acts to cover the Lord and His pastimes from the eyes of mundaners, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita (7.25), where the Lord says that He reserves the right of not being exposed to everyone.
The acts of yogamaya make it possible for the Lord and the gopis, in loving ecstasy, to sometimes meet and sometimes separate. These transcendental loving affairs of the Lord are unimaginable to empiricists involved in the impersonal feature of the Absolute Truth. Therefore the Lord Himself appears before the mundaners to bestow upon them the highest form of spiritual realization and also personally relish its essence. The Lord is so merciful that He Himself descends to take the fallen souls back home to the kingdom of Godhead, where the erotic principles of Godhead are eternally relished in their real form, distinct from the perverted sexual love so much adored and indulged in by the fallen souls in their diseased condition. The reason the Lord displays the rasa-lila is essentially to induce all the fallen souls to give up their diseased morality and religiosity, and to attract them to the kingdom of God to enjoy the reality. A person who actually understands what the rasa-lila is will certainly hate to indulge in mundane sex life. For the realized soul, hearing the Lord's rasa-lila through the proper channel will result in complete abstinence from material sexual pleasure.
dharma chadi'--giving up religious customs; rage--in love; dunhe--both; karaye--do; milana--meeting; kabhu--sometimes; mile--they meet; kabhu--sometimes; na mile--they do not meet; daivera--of destiny; ghatana--the happening.
"Pure attachment will unite us even at the expense of moral and religious duties [dharma]. Destiny will sometimes bring us together and sometimes separate us."
The gopis came out to meet Krsna in the dead of night when they heard the sound of Krsna's flute. Srila Rupa Gosvami has accordingly composed a nice verse (see Cc. Adi 5.224) that describes the beautiful boy called Govinda standing by the bank of the Yamuna with His flute to His lips in the shining moonlight. Those who want to enjoy life in the materialistic way of society, friendship and love should not go to the Yamuna to see the form of Govinda. The sound of Lord Krsna's flute is so sweet that it has made the gopis forget all about their relationships with their kinsmen and flee to Krsna in the dead of night.
By leaving home in that way, the gopis transgressed the Vedic regulations of household life. This indicates that when natural feelings of love for Krsna become fully manifest, a devotee can neglect conventional social rules and regulations. In the material world we are situated in designative positions only, but pure devotional service begins when one is freed from all designations. When love for Krsna is awakened, the designative positions are overcome.
The spontaneous attraction of Sri Krsna for His dearest parts and parcels generates an enthusiasm that obliges Sri Krsna and the gopis to meet together. To celebrate this transcendental enthusiasm, there is need of a sentiment of separation between the lover and beloved. In the condition of material tribulation, no one wants the pangs of separation. But in the transcendental form, the very same separation, being absolute in its nature, strengthens the ties of love and enhances the desire of the lover and beloved to meet. The period of separation, evaluated transcendentally, is more relishable than the actual meeting, which lacks the feelings of increasing anticipation because the lover and beloved are both present.
ei saba rasa-niryasa kariba asvada
ei dvare kariba saba bhaktere prasada
ei--these; saba--all; rasa-niryasa--essence of mellows; kariba--I shall do; asvada--tasting; ei dvare--by this; kariba--I shall do; saba--all; bhaktere--to the devotees; prasada--favor.
"I shall taste the essence of all these rasas, and in this way I shall favor all the devotees."
"Then, by hearing about the pure love of the residents of Vraja, devotees will worship Me on the path of spontaneous love, abandoning all rituals of religiosity and fruitive activity."
Many realized souls, such as Raghunatha dasa Gosvami and King Kulasekhara, have recommended with great emphasis that one develop this spontaneous love of Godhead, even at the risk of transgressing all the traditional codes of morality and religiosity. Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami, one of the six Gosvamis of Vrndavana, has written in his prayers called the Manah-siksa that one should simply worship Radha and Krsna with all attention. Na dharmam nadharmam sruti-gana-niruktam kila kuru: one should not be much interested in performing Vedic rituals or simply following rules and regulations.
King Kulasekhara has written similarly, in his book Mukunda-mala-stotra (5):
nastha dharme na vasu-nicaye naiva kamopabhoge
yad bhavyam tad bhavatu bhagavan purva-karmanurupam
etat prarthyam mama bahu-matam janma-janmantare 'pi
tvat-padambho-ruha-yuga-gata niscala bhaktir astu
"I have no attraction for performing religious rituals or holding any earthly kingdom. I do not care for sense enjoyments; let them appear and disappear in accordance with my previous deeds. My only desire is to be fixed in devotional service to the lotus feet of the Lord, even though I may continue to take birth here life after life."
anugrahaya--for showing favor; bhaktanam--to the devotees; manusam--humanlike; deham--body; asritah--accepting; bhajate--He enjoys; tadrsih--such; kridah--pastimes; yah--which; srutva--having heard; tat-parah--fully intent upon Him; bhavet--one must become.
"Krsna manifests His eternal humanlike form and performs His pastimes to show mercy to the devotees. Having heard such pastimes, one should engage in service to Him."
This text is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.33.36). The Supreme Personality of Godhead has innumerable expansions of His transcendental form who eternally exist in the spiritual world. This material world is only a perverted reflection of the spiritual world, where everything is manifested without inebriety. There everything is in its original existence, free from the domination of time. Time cannot deteriorate or interfere with the conditions in the spiritual world, where different manifestations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are the recipients of the worship of different living entities in their constitutional spiritual positions. In the spiritual world all existence is unadulterated goodness. The goodness found in the material world is contaminated by the modes of passion and ignorance.
The saying that the human form of life is the best position for devotional service has its special significance because only in this form can a living entity revive his eternal relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The human form is considered the highest state in the cycle of the species of life in the material world. If one takes advantage of this highest kind of material form, one can regain his position of devotional service to the Lord.
Incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead appear in all the species of life, although this is inconceivable to the human brain. The Lord's pastimes are differentiated according to the appreciating capacity of the different types of bodies of the living entities. The Supreme Lord bestows the most merciful benediction upon human society when He appears in His human form. It is then that humanity gets the opportunity to engage in different kinds of eternal service to the Lord.
Special natural appreciation of the descriptions of a particular pastime of Godhead indicates the constitutional position of a living entity. Adoration, servitorship, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love are the five primary relationships with Krsna. The highest perfectional stage of the conjugal relationship, enriched by many sentiments, gives the maximum relishable mellow to the devotee.
The Lord appears in different incarnations--as a fish, tortoise and boar, as Parasurama, Lord Rama, Buddha and so on--to reciprocate the different appreciations of living entities in different stages of evolution. The conjugal relationship of amorous love called parakiya-rasa is the unparalleled perfection of love exhibited by Lord Krsna and His devotees.
A class of so-called devotees known as sahajiyas try to imitate the Lord's pastimes, although they have no understanding of the amorous love in His expansions of pleasure potency. Their superficial imitation can create havoc on the path for the advancement of one's spiritual relationship with the Lord. Material sexual indulgence can never be equated with spiritual love, which is in unadulterated goodness. The activities of the sahajiyas simply lower one deeper into the material contamination of the senses and mind. Krsna's transcendental pastimes display eternal servitorship to Adhoksaja, the Supreme Lord, who is beyond all conception through material senses. Materialistic conditioned souls do not understand the transcendental exchanges of love, but they like to indulge in sense gratification in the name of devotional service. The activities of the Supreme Lord can never be understood by irresponsible persons who think the pastimes of Radha and Krsna to be ordinary affairs. The rasa dance is arranged by Krsna's internal potency yogamaya, and it is beyond the grasp of the materially affected person. Trying to throw mud into transcendence with their perversity, the sahajiyas misinterpret the sayings tat-paratvena nirmalam and tat-paro bhavet. By misinterpreting tadrsih kridah, they want to indulge in sex while pretending to imitate Lord Krsna. But one must actually understand the imports of the words through the intelligence of the authorized gosvamis. Srila Narottama dasa Thakura, in his prayers to the Gosvamis, has explained his inability to understand such spiritual affairs.
rupa-raghunatha-pade ha-ibe akuti
kabe hama bujhaba se yugala-piriti
"When I shall be eager to understand the literature given by the Gosvamis, then I shall be able to understand the transcendental love affairs of Radha and Krsna." In other words, unless one is trained under the disciplic succession of the Gosvamis, one cannot understand Radha and Krsna. The conditioned souls are naturally averse to understanding the spiritual existence of the Lord, and if they try to know the transcendental nature of the Lord's pastimes while they remain absorbed in materialism, they are sure to blunder like the sahajiyas.
'bhavet' kriya vidhilin, sei iha kaya
kartavya avasya ei, anyatha pratyavaya
bhavet--bhavet; kriya--the verb; vidhi-lin--an injunction of the imperative mood; sei--that; iha--here; kaya--says; kartavya--to be done; avasya--certainly; ei--this; anyatha--otherwise; pratyavaya--detriment.
Here the use of the verb "bhavet," which is in the imperative mood, tells us that this certainly must be done. Noncompliance would be abandonment of duty.
This imperative is applicable to pure devotees. Neophytes will be able to understand these affairs only after being elevated by regulated devotional service under the expert guidance of the spiritual master. Then they too will be competent to hear of the love affairs of Radha and Krsna.
As long as one is in material, conditioned life, strict discipline is required in the matter of moral and immoral activities. The absolute world is transcendental and free from such distinctions because there inebriety is not possible. But in this material world a sexual appetite necessitates distinction between moral and immoral conduct. There are no sexual activities in the spiritual world. The transactions between lover and beloved in the spiritual world are pure transcendental love and unadulterated bliss.
One who has not been attracted by the transcendental beauty of rasa will certainly be dragged down into material attraction, thus to act in material contamination and progress to the darkest region of hellish life. But by understanding the conjugal love of Radha and Krsna one is freed from the grip of attraction to material so-called love between man and woman. Similarly, one who understands the pure parental love of Nanda and Yasoda for Krsna will be saved from being dragged into material parental affection. If one accepts Krsna as the supreme friend, the attraction of material friendship will be finished for him, and he will not be dismayed by so-called friendship with mundane wranglers. If he is attracted by servitorship to Krsna, he will no longer have to serve the material body in the degraded status of material existence, with the false hope of becoming master in the future. Similarly, one who sees the greatness of Krsna in neutrality will certainly never again seek the so-called relief of impersonalist or voidist philosophy. If one is not attracted by the transcendental nature of Krsna, one is sure to be attracted to material enjoyment, thus to become implicated in the clinging network of virtuous and sinful activities and continue material existence by transmigrating from one material body to another. Only in Krsna consciousness can one achieve the highest perfection of life.
ei vancha yaiche krsna-prakatya-karana
ei mata caitanya-krsna purna bhagavan
yuga-dharma-pravartana nahe tanra kama
ei--this; vancha--desire; yaiche--just as; krsna--of Lord Krsna; prakatya--for the manifestation; karana--reason; asura-samhara--the killing of demons; anusanga--secondary; prayojana--reason; ei mata--like this; caitanya--as Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; krsna--Lord Krsna; purna--full; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yuga-dharma--the religion of the age; pravartana--initiating; nahe--is not; tanra--of Him; kama--the desire.
Just as these desires are the fundamental reason for Krsna's appearance whereas destroying the demons is only an incidental necessity, so for Sri Krsna Caitanya, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, promulgating the dharma of the age is incidental.
kona karane yabe haila avatare mana
yuga-dharma-kala haila se kale milana
kona karane--by some reason; yabe--when; haila--there was; avatare--in incarnation; mana--inclination; yuga-dharma--for the religion of the age; kala--the time; haila--there was; se kale--at that time; milana--conjunction.
When the Lord desired to appear for another reason, the time for promulgating the religion of the age also arose.
dui hetu avatari' lana bhakta-gana
apane asvade prema-nama-sankirtana
dui--two; hetu--reasons; avatari'--incarnating; lana--taking; bhakta-gana--the devotees; apane--Himself; asvade--tastes; prema--love of God; nama-sankirtana--and congregational chanting of the holy name.
Thus with two intentions the Lord appeared with His devotees and tasted the nectar of prema with the congregational chanting of the holy name.
sei dvare acandale kirtana sancare
nama-prema-mala ganthi' paraila samsare
sei dvare--by that; a-candale--even among the candalas; kirtana--the chanting of the holy names; sancare--He infuses; nama--of the holy names; prema--and of love of God; mala--a garland; ganthi'--stringing together; paraila--He put it on; samsare--the whole material world.
Thus He spread kirtana even among the untouchables. He wove a wreath of the holy name and prema with which He garlanded the entire material world.
ei-mata--like this; bhakta-bhava--the position of a devotee; kari'--making; angikara--acceptance; apani--Himself; acari'--practicing; bhakti--devotional service; karila--did; pracara--propagation.
In this way, assuming the sentiment of a devotee, He preached devotional service while practicing it Himself.
When Rupa Gosvami met Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu at Prayaga (Allahabad), he offered his respectful obeisances by submitting that Lord Caitanya was more magnanimous than any other avatara of Krsna because He was distributing love of Krsna. His mission was to enhance love of Godhead. In the human form of life the highest achievement is to attain the platform of love of Godhead. Lord Caitanya did not invent a system of religion, as people sometimes assume. Religious systems are meant to show the existence of God, who is then generally approached as the cosmic order-supplier. But Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's transcendental mission is to distribute love of Godhead to everyone. Anyone who accepts God as the Supreme can take to the process of chanting Hare Krsna and become a lover of God. Therefore Lord Caitanya is the most magnanimous. This munificent broadcasting of devotional service is possible only for Krsna Himself. Therefore Lord Caitanya is Krsna.
In the Bhagavad-gita Krsna has taught the philosophy of surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who has surrendered to the Supreme can make further progress by learning to love Him. Therefore the Krsna consciousness movement propagated by Lord Caitanya is especially meant for those who are cognizant of the presence of the Supreme Godhead, the ultimate controller of everything. His mission is to teach people how to dovetail themselves into engagements of transcendental loving service. He is Krsna teaching His own service from the position of a devotee. The Lord's acceptance of the role of a devotee in the eternal form of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is another of the Lord's wonderful features. A conditioned soul cannot reach the absolute Personality of Godhead by his imperfect endeavor, and therefore it is wonderful that Lord Sri Krsna, in the form of Lord Gauranga, has made it easy for everyone to approach Him.
Svarupa Damodara Gosvami has described Lord Caitanya as Krsna Himself with the attitude of Radharani, or a combination of Radha and Krsna. The intention of Lord Caitanya is to taste Krsna's sweetness in transcendental love. He does not care to think of Himself as Krsna, because He wants the position of Radharani. We should remember this. A class of so-called devotees called the nadiya-nagaris or gaura-nagaris pretend that they have the sentiment of gopis toward Lord Caitanya, but they do not realize that He placed Himself not as the enjoyer, Krsna, but as the enjoyed, the devotee of Krsna. The concoctions of unauthorized persons pretending to be bona fide have not been accepted by Lord Caitanya. Presentations such as those of the gaura-nagaris are only disturbances to the sincere execution of the mission of Lord Caitanya. Lord Caitanya is undoubtedly Krsna Himself, and He is always nondifferent from Srimati Radharani. But the emotion technically called vipralambha-bhava, which the Lord adopted for confidential reasons, should not be disturbed in the name of service. A mundaner should not unnecessarily intrude into affairs of transcendence and thereby displease the Lord. One must always be on guard against this sort of devotional anomaly. A devotee is not meant to create disturbances to Krsna. As Srila Rupa Gosvami has explained, devotional service is anukulyena, or favorable to Krsna. Acting unfavorably toward Krsna is not devotion. Kamsa was the enemy of Krsna. He always thought of Krsna, but he thought of Him as an enemy. One should always avoid such unfavorable so-called service.
Lord Caitanya has accepted the role of Radharani, and we should support that position, as Svarupa Damodara did in the Gambhira (the room where Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu stayed in Puri). He always reminded Lord Caitanya of Radha's feelings of separation as they are described in Srimad-Bhagavatam, and Lord Caitanya appreciated his assistance. But the gaura-nagaris, who place Lord Caitanya in the position of enjoyer and themselves as His enjoyed, are not approved by Lord Caitanya or by Lord Caitanya's followers. Instead of being blessed, the foolish imitators are left completely apart. Their concoctions are against the principles of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The doctrine of transcendental enjoyment by Krsna cannot be mixed up with the doctrine of transcendental feeling of separation from Krsna in the role of Radharani.
dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, ara ye srngara
cari prema, catur-vidha bhakta-i adhara
Four kinds of devotees are the receptacles of the four kinds of mellows in love of God, namely servitude, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love.
nija nija bhava sabe srestha kari' mane
nija-bhave kare krsna-sukha asvadane
nija nija--each his own; bhava--mood; sabe--all; srestha kari'--making the best; mane--accepts; nija-bhave--in his own mood; kare--does; krsna-sukha--happiness with Lord Krsna; asvadane--tasting.
Each kind of devotee feels that his sentiment is the most excellent, and thus in that mood he tastes great happiness with Lord Krsna.
tatastha ha-iya mane vicara yadi kari
saba rasa haite srngare adhika madhuri
tata-stha ha-iya--becoming impartial; mane--in the mind; vicara--consideration; yadi--if; kari--doing; saba rasa--all the mellows; haite--than; srngare--in conjugal love; adhika--greater; madhuri--sweetness.
But if we compare the sentiments in an impartial mood, we find that the conjugal sentiment is superior to all in sweetness.
No one is higher or lower than anyone else in transcendental relationships with the Lord, for in the absolute realm everything is equal. But although these relationships are absolute, there are also transcendental differences between them. Thus the transcendental relationship of conjugal love is considered the highest perfection.
yatha-uttaram--one after another; asau--that; svada-visesa--of particular tastes; ullasa-mayi--consisting of the increase; api--although; ratih--love; vasanaya--by the different desire; svadvi--sweet; bhasate--exists; ka api--any; kasyacit--of someone (the devotee).
"Increasing love is experienced in various tastes, one above another. But that love which has the highest taste in the gradual succession of desire manifests itself in the form of conjugal love."
This is a verse from Srila Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.5.38).
ataeva madhura rasa kahi tara nama
svakiya-parakiya-bhave dvi-vidha samsthana
Therefore I call it madhura-rasa. It has two further divisions, namely wedded and unwedded love.
parakiya-bhave ati rasera ullasa
vraja vina ihara anyatra nahi vasa
parakiya-bhave--in the mood of parakiya, or conjugal relations outside of marriage; ati--very great; rasera--of mellow; ullasa--increase; vraja vina--except for Vraja; ihara--of this; anyatra--anywhere else; nahi--there is not; vasa--residence.
There is a great increase of mellow in the unwedded conjugal mood. Such love is found nowhere but in Vraja.
vraja-vadhu-ganera ei bhava niravadhi
tara madhye sri-radhaya bhavera avadhi
vraja-vadhu-ganera--of the young wives of Vraja; ei--this; bhava--mood; niravadhi--unbounded; tara madhye--among them; sri-radhaya--in Srimati Radharani; bhavera--of the mood; avadhi--the highest limit.
This mood is unbounded in the damsels of Vraja, but among them it finds its perfection in Sri Radha.
praudha nirmala-bhava prema sarvottama
praudha--matured; nirmala-bhava--pure condition; prema--love; sarva-uttama--best of all; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; madhurya-rasa--of the mellow of the conjugal relationship; asvada--of the tasting; karana--the cause.
Her pure, mature love surpasses that of all others. Her love is the cause of Lord Krsna's tasting the sweetness of the conjugal relationship.
ataeva sei bhava angikara kari'
sadhilena nija vancha gauranga-sri-hari
ataeva--therefore; sei bhava--that mood; angikara kari'--accepting; sadhilena--fulfilled; nija--His own; vancha--desire; gauranga--Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sri-hari--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Therefore Lord Gauranga, who is Sri Hari Himself, accepted the sentiments of Radha and thus fulfilled His own desires.
Of the four kinds of reciprocation of loving service--dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhurya--madhurya is considered the fullest. But the conjugal relationship is further divided into two varieties, namely svakiya and parakiya. Svakiya is the relationship with Krsna as a formally married husband, and parakiya is the relationship with Krsna as a paramour. Expert analysts have decided that the transcendental ecstasy of the parakiya mellow is better because it is more enthusiastic. This phase of conjugal love is found in those who have surrendered to the Lord in intense love, knowing well that such illicit love with a paramour is not morally approved in society. The risks involved in such love of Godhead make this emotion superior to the relationship in which such risk is not involved. The validity of such risk, however, is possible only in the transcendental realm. Svakiya and parakiya conjugal love of Godhead have no existence in the material world, and parakiya is not exhibited anywhere in Vaikuntha, but only in the portion of Goloka Vrndavana known as Vraja.
Some devotees think that Krsna is eternally the enjoyer in Goloka Vrndavana but only sometimes comes to the platform of Vraja to enjoy parakiya-rasa. The six Gosvamis of Vrndavana, however, have explained that Krsna's pastimes in Vraja are eternal, like His other activities in Goloka Vrndavana. Vraja is a confidential part of Goloka Vrndavana. Krsna exhibited His Vraja pastimes on the surface of this world, and similar pastimes are eternally exhibited in Vraja in Goloka Vrndavana, where parakiya-rasa is ever existent.
In the Third Chapter of this epic, Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami has explicitly accepted the fact that Krsna appears in this material world at the end of the Dvapara age of the twenty-eighth catur-yuga of Vaivasvata Manu and brings with Him His Vrajadhama, which is the eternal abode of His highest pastimes. As the Lord appears by His own internal potency, so He also brings all His paraphernalia by the same internal potency, without extraneous help. It is further stated here in Caitanya-caritamrta that the parakiya sentiment exists only in that transcendental realm and nowhere else. This highest form of ecstasy can exist only in the most confidential part of the transcendental world, but by the causeless mercy of the Lord we can have a peep into that invisible Vraja.
The transcendental mellow relished by the gopis in Vraja is superexcellently featured in Srimati Radharani. Mature assimilation of the transcendental humor of conjugal love is represented by Srimati Radharani, whose feelings are incomprehensible even to the Lord Himself. The intensity of Her loving service is the highest form of ecstasy. No one can surpass Srimati Radharani in relishing the transcendental mellow qualities of the Lord. Therefore the Lord Himself agreed to assume the position of Radharani in the form of Lord Sri Gauranga. He then relished the highest position of parakiya-rasa, as exhibited in the transcendental abode of Vraja.
suresanam durgam gatir atisayenopanisadam
muninam sarva-svam pranata-patalinam madhurima
viniryasah premno nikhila-pasu-palambuja-drsam
sa caitanyah kim me punar api drsor yasyati padam
sura-isanam--of the kings of the demigods; durgam--fortress; gatih--the goal; atisayena--eminently; upanisadam--of the Upanisads; muninam--of the sages; sarva-svam--the be-all and end-all; pranata-patalinam--of the groups of the devotees; madhurima--the sweetness; viniryasah--the essence; premnah--of love; nikhila--all; pasu-pala--of the cowherd women; ambuja-drsam--lotus-eyed; sah--He; caitanyah--Lord Caitanya; kim--what; me--my; punah--again; api--certainly; drsoh--of the two eyes; yasyati--will come; padam--to the abode.
"Lord Caitanya is the shelter of the demigods, the goal of the Upanisads, the be-all and end-all of the great sages, the beautiful shelter of His devotees, and the essence of the love of the lotus-eyed gopis. Will He again be the object of my vision?"
aparam kasyapi pranayi-jana-vrndasya kutuki
rasa-stomam hrtva madhuram upabhoktum kam-api yah
rucam svam avavre dyutim iha tadiyam prakatayan
sa devas caitanyakrtir atitaram nah krpayatu
aparam--boundless; kasya api--of someone; pranayi-jana-vrndasya--of the multitude of lovers; kutuki--one who is curious; rasa-stomam--the group of mellows; hrtva--stealing; madhuram--sweet; upabhoktum--to enjoy; kam api--some; yah--who; rucam--luster; svam--own; avavre--covered; dyutim--luster; iha--here; tadiyam--related to Him; prakatayan--manifesting; sah--He; devah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caitanya-akrtih--having the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; atitaram--greatly; nah--unto us; krpayatu--may He show His mercy.
"Lord Krsna desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love of one of His multitude of loving damsels [Sri Radha], and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace."
Texts 51 and 52 are from the Stava-mala of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
radha--Srimati Radharani; krsna--of Lord Krsna; pranaya--of love; vikrtih--the transformation; hladini saktih--pleasure potency; asmat--from this; eka-atmanau--both the same in identity; api--although; bhuvi--on earth; pura--from beginningless time; deha-bhedam--separate forms; gatau--obtained; tau--these two; caitanya-akhyam--known as Sri Caitanya; prakatam--manifest; adhuna--now; tat-dvayam--the two of Them; ca--and; aikyam--unity; aptam--obtained; radha--of Srimati Radharani; bhava--mood; dyuti--the luster; suvalitam--who is adorned with; naumi--I offer my obeisances; krsna-svarupam--to Him who is identical with Sri Krsna.
"The loving affairs of Sri Radha and Krsna are transcendental manifestations of the Lord's internal pleasure-giving potency. Although Radha and Krsna are one in Their identity, They separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental identities have again united, in the form of Sri Krsna Caitanya. I bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Srimati Radharani although He is Krsna Himself."
This text is from the diary of Srila Svarupa Damodara Gosvami. It appears as the fifth of the first fourteen verses of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta.
radha-krsna eka atma, dui deha dhari'
anyonye vilase rasa asvadana kari'
radha-krsna--Radha and Krsna; eka--one; atma--self; dui--two; deha--bodies; dhari'--assuming; anyonye--one another; vilase--They enjoy; rasa--the mellows of love; asvadana kari'--tasting.
Radha and Krsna are one and the same, but They have assumed two bodies. Thus They enjoy each other, tasting the mellows of love.
The two transcendentalists Radha and Krsna are a puzzle to materialists. The above description of Radha and Krsna from the diary of Srila Svarupa Damodara Gosvami is a condensed explanation, but one needs great spiritual insight to understand the mystery of these two personalities. One is enjoying in two. Sri Krsna is the potent factor, and Srimati Radharani is the internal potency. According to Vedanta philosophy, there is no difference between the potent and potency: they are identical. We cannot differentiate between one and the other, any more than we can separate fire from heat.
Everything in the Absolute is inconceivable in relative existence. Therefore in relative cognizance it is very difficult to assimilate this truth of the oneness between the potent and the potency. The philosophy of inconceivable oneness and difference propounded by Lord Caitanya is the only source of understanding for such intricacies of transcendence.
In fact, Radharani is the internal potency of Sri Krsna, and She eternally intensifies the pleasure of Sri Krsna. Impersonalists cannot understand this without the help of a maha-bhagavata devotee. The very name Radha suggests that She is eternally the topmost mistress of the comforts of Sri Krsna. As such, She is the medium transmitting the living entities' service to Sri Krsna. Devotees in Vrndavana therefore seek the mercy of Srimati Radharani in order to be recognized as loving servitors of Sri Krsna.
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu personally approaches the fallen conditioned souls of the iron age to deliver the highest principle of transcendental relationships with the Lord. The activities of Lord Caitanya are primarily in the role of the pleasure-giving portion of His internal potency.
The absolute Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, is the omnipotent form of transcendental existence, knowledge and bliss in full. His internal potency is exhibited first as sat, or existence--or, in other words, as the portion that expands the existence function of the Lord. The same potency while displaying full knowledge is called cit, or samvit, which expands the transcendental forms of the Lord. Finally, the same potency while playing as a pleasure-giving medium is known as hladini, or the transcendental blissful potency. Thus the Lord manifests His internal potency in three transcendental divisions.
sei dui eka ebe caitanya gosani
rasa asvadite donhe haila eka-thani
Therefore I shall first delineate the position of Radha and Krsna. From that the glory of Lord Caitanya will be known.
radhika hayena krsnera pranaya-vikara
svarupa-sakti----'hladini' nama yanhara
radhika--Srimati Radharani; hayena--is; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; pranaya-vikara--transformation of love; svarupa-sakti--personal energy; hladini--hladini; nama--name; yanhara--whose.
Srimati Radhika is the transformation of Krsna's love. She is His internal energy called hladini.
hladini karaya krsne anandasvadana
hladinira dvara kare bhaktera posana
hladini--the hladini energy; karaya--causes to do; krsne--in Lord Krsna; ananda-asvadana--the tasting of bliss; hladinira dvara--by the pleasure potency; kare--does; bhaktera--of the devotee; posana--nourishing.
That hladini energy gives Krsna pleasure and nourishes His devotees.
Srila Jiva Gosvami has elaborately discussed the hladini potency in his Priti-sandarbha. He says that the Vedas clearly state, "Only devotional service can lead one to the Personality of Godhead. Only devotional service can help a devotee meet the Supreme Lord face to face. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is attracted by devotional service, and as such the ultimate supremacy of Vedic knowledge rests in knowing the science of devotional service."
What is the particular attraction that makes the Supreme Lord enthusiastic to accept devotional service, and what is the nature of such service? The Vedic scriptures inform us that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, is self sufficient, and that maya, nescience, can never influence Him at all. As such, the potency that overcomes the Supreme must be purely spiritual. Such a potency cannot be anything of the material manifestation. The bliss enjoyed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead cannot be of material composition like the impersonalist conception of the bliss of Brahman. Devotional service is reciprocation between two, and therefore it cannot be located simply within one's self. Therefore the bliss of self-realization, brahmananda, cannot be equated with devotional service.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead has three kinds of internal potency, namely, the hladini-sakti, or pleasure potency, the sandhini-sakti, or existential potency, and the samvit-sakti, or cognitive potency. In the Visnu Purana (1.12.69) the Lord is addressed as follows: "O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hladini, sandhini and samvit exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities."
Hladini is the personal manifestation of the blissfulness of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by which He enjoys pleasure. Because the pleasure potency is perpetually present in the Supreme Lord, the theory of the impersonalist that the Lord appears in the material mode of goodness cannot be accepted. The impersonalist conclusion is against the Vedic version that the Lord possesses a transcendental pleasure potency. When the pleasure potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is exhibited by His grace in the person of a devotee, that manifestation is called love of God. "Love of God" is an epithet for the pleasure potency of the Lord. Therefore devotional service reciprocated between the Lord and His devotee is an exhibition of the transcendental pleasure potency of the Lord.
The potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that always enriches Him with transcendental bliss is not material, but the Sankarites have accepted it as such because they are ignorant of the identity of the Supreme Lord and His pleasure potency. Those ignorant persons cannot understand the distinction between impersonal spiritual bliss and the variegatedness of the spiritual pleasure potency. The hladini potency gives the Lord all transcendental pleasure, and the Lord bestows such a potency upon His pure devotee.
sac-cid-ananda, purna, krsnera svarupa
eka-i cic-chakti tanra dhare tina rupa
sat-cit-ananda--eternity, knowledge and bliss; purna--full; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sva-rupa--own form; eka-i--one; cit-sakti--spiritual energy; tanra--of Him; dhare--manifests; tina--three; rupa--forms.
Lord Krsna's body is eternal [sat], full of knowledge [cit] and full of bliss [ananda]. His one spiritual energy manifests three forms.
ananda-amse--in the bliss portion; hladini--the pleasure energy; sat-amse--in the eternal portion; sandhini--the existence-expanding energy; cit-amse--in the cognizant portion; samvit--the full energy of knowledge; yare--which; jnana kari'--as knowledge; mani--I accept.
Hladini is His aspect of bliss; sandhini, of eternal existence; and samvit, of cognizance, which is also accepted as knowledge.
In his thesis Bhagavat-sandarbha (103), Srila Jiva Gosvami explains the potencies of the Lord as follows: The transcendental potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by which He maintains His existence is called sandhini. The transcendental potency by which He knows Himself and causes others to know Him is called samvit. The transcendental potency by which He possesses transcendental bliss and causes His devotees to have bliss is called hladini.
The total exhibition of these potencies is called visuddha-sattva, and this platform of spiritual variegatedness is displayed even in the material world, when the Lord appears here. The pastimes and manifestations of the Lord in the material world are therefore not at all material: they belong to the pure transcendental state. The Bhagavad-gita confirms that anyone who understands the transcendental nature of the Lord's appearance, activities and disappearance becomes eligible for freedom from material bondage upon quitting the present material tabernacle. He can enter the spiritual kingdom to associate with the Supreme Personality of Godhead and reciprocate the hladini potency in transactions between him and the Lord. In the mundane mode of goodness there are tinges of passion and ignorance. Therefore mundane goodness, being mixed, is called misra-sattva. But the transcendental variegatedness of visuddha-sattva is completely free from all mundane qualities. Visuddha-sattva is therefore the proper atmosphere in which to experience the Personality of Godhead and His transcendental pastimes. Spiritual variegatedness is eternally independent of all material conditions and is nondifferent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, both being absolute. The Lord and His devotees simultaneously perceive the hladini potency directly by the power of the samvit potency.
The material modes of nature control the conditioned souls, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead is never influenced by these modes, as all Vedic literature directly and indirectly corroborates. Lord Krsna Himself says in the Eleventh Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.25.12), sattvam rajas tama iti guna jivasya naiva me: "The material modes of goodness, passion and ignorance are connected with the conditioned souls, but never with Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead." The Visnu Purana confirms this as follows:
sattvadayo na santise
yatra na prakrta gunah
sa suddhah sarva-suddhebhyah
puman adyah prasidatu
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, is beyond the three qualities goodness, passion and ignorance. No material qualities exist in Him. May that original person, Narayana, who is situated in a completely transcendental position, be pleased with us."
In the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.27.4), Indra praised Krsna as follows:
visuddha-sattvam tava dhama santam
maya-mayo 'yam guna-sampravaho
na vidyate te 'grahananubandhah
"My dear Lord, Your abode is visuddha-sattva, always undisturbed by the material qualities, and the activities there are in transcendental loving service unto Your feet. The goodness, austerity and penance of the devotees enhance such activities, which are always free from the contamination of passion and ignorance. Material qualities cannot touch You under any circumstances."
When not manifested, the modes of material nature are said to be in goodness. When they are externally manifested and active in producing the varieties of material existence, they are said to be in passion. And when there is a lack of activity and variegatedness, they are said to be in ignorance. In other words, the pensive mood is goodness, activity is passion, and inactivity is ignorance. Above all these mundane qualitative manifestations is visuddha-sattva. When it is predominated by the sandhini potency, it is perceivable as the existence of all that be. When predominated by the samvit potency, it is perceived as knowledge in transcendence. And when predominated by the hladini potency, it is perceived as the most confidential love of Godhead. Visuddha-sattva, the simultaneous manifestation of these three in one, is the main feature of the kingdom of God.
The Absolute Truth is therefore the substance of reality, eternally manifest in three energies. The manifestation of the internal energy of the Lord is the inconceivably variegated spiritual world, the manifestation of the marginal energy comprises the living entities, and the manifestation of the external energy is the material cosmos. Therefore the Absolute Truth includes these four principles--the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, His internal energy, His marginal energy and His external energy. The form of the Lord and the expansions of His form as svayam-rupa and vaibhava-prakasa are directly the enjoyers of the internal energy, which is the eternal exhibitor of the spiritual world, the most confidential of the manifestations of energy. The external manifestation, the material energy, provides the covering bodies of the conditioned living entities, from Brahma down to the insignificant ant. This covering energy is manifested under the three modes of material nature and appreciated in various ways by living entities in both the higher and lower forms of life.
Each of the three divisions of the internal potency--the sandhini, samvit and hladini energies--influences one of the external potencies by which the conditioned souls are conducted. Such influence manifests the three qualitative modes of material nature, proving definitely that the living entities, the marginal potency, are eternally servitors of the Lord and are therefore controlled by either the internal or the external potency.
hladini--pleasure potency; sandhini--existence potency; samvit--knowledge potency; tvayi--in You; eka--one; sarva-samsthitau--who are the basis of all things; hlada--pleasure; tapa--and misery; kari--causing; misra--a mixture of the two; tvayi--in You; na u--not; guna-varjite--who are without the three modes of material nature.
"O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hladini, sandhini and samvit exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities."
This text is from the Visnu Purana (1.12.69).
sandhinira sara amsa----'suddha-sattva' nama
bhagavanera satta haya yahate visrama
sandhinira--of the existence potency; sara--essence; amsa--portion; suddha-sattva--suddha-sattva (pure existence); nama--named; bhagavanera--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; satta--the existence; haya--is; yahate--in which; visrama--the resting place.
The essential portion of the sandhini potency is suddha-sattva. Lord Krsna's existence rests upon it.
mata, pita, sthana, grha, sayyasana ara
e-saba krsnera suddha-sattvera vikara
mata--mother; pita--father; sthana--place; grha--house; sayya-asana--beds and seats; ara--and; e-saba--all these; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; suddha-sattvera--of the suddha-sattva; vikara--transformations.
Krsna's mother, father, abode, house, bedding, seats and so on are all transformations of suddha-sattva.
Lord Krsna's father, mother and household affairs are all displayed in the same visuddha-sattva existence. A living entity situated in the status of pure goodness can understand the form, quality and other features of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krsna consciousness begins on the platform of pure goodness. Although there is a faint realization of Krsna at first, Krsna is actually realized as Vasudeva, the absolute proprietor of omnipotence or the prime predominating Deity of all potencies. When the living entity is situated in visuddha-sattva, transcendental to the three material modes of nature, he can perceive the form, quality and other features of the Supreme Personality of Godhead through his service attitude. The status of pure goodness is the platform of understanding, for the Supreme Lord is always in spiritual existence.
Krsna is always all-spiritual. Aside from the parents of the Personality of Godhead, all the other paraphernalia of His existence is also essentially a manifestation of sandhini-sakti, or a transformation of visuddha-sattva. To make this more clear, it may be said that this sandhini-sakti of the internal potency maintains and manifests all the variegatedness of the spiritual world. In the kingdom of God, the Lord's servants and maidservants, His consorts, His father and mother and everything else are all transformations of the spiritual existence of sandhini-sakti. The existential sandhini-sakti in the external potency similarly expands all the variegatedness of the material cosmos, from which we can have a glimpse of the spiritual field.
sattvam visuddham vasudeva-sabditam
yad iyate tatra puman apavrtah
sattve ca tasmin bhagavan vasudevo
hy adhoksajo me manasa vidhiyate
sattvam--existence; visuddham--pure; vasudeva-sabditam--named vasudeva; yat--from which; iyate--appears; tatra--in that; puman--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; apavrtah--without any covering; sattve--in goodness; ca--and; tasmin--that; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vasudevah--Vasudeva; hi--certainly; adhoksajah--who is beyond the senses; me--my; manasa--by the mind; vidhiyate--is procured.
"The condition of pure goodness [suddha-sattva], in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed without any covering, is called vasudeva. In that pure state the Supreme Godhead, who is beyond the material senses and who is known as Vasudeva, is perceived by my mind."
This text from Srimad-Bhagavatam (4.3.23), spoken by Lord Siva when he condemned Daksa, the father of Sati, as an opponent of Visnu, confirms beyond a doubt that Lord Krsna, His name, His fame, His qualities and everything in connection with His paraphernalia exist in the sandhini-sakti of the Lord's internal potency.
krsne bhagavatta-jnana----samvitera sara
brahma-jnanadika saba tara parivara
krsne--in Krsna; bhagavatta--of the quality of being the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; jnana--knowledge; samvitera--of the knowledge potency; sara--the essence; brahma-jnana--knowledge of Brahman; adika--and so on; saba--all; tara--of that; parivara--dependents.
The essence of the samvit potency is knowledge that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is Lord Krsna. All other kinds of knowledge, such as the knowledge of Brahman, are its components.
The activities of the samvit-sakti produce the effect of cognition. Both the Lord and the living entities are cognizant. Sri Krsna, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, has full knowledge of everything everywhere, and therefore there are no hindrances to His cognition. He can have knowledge merely by glancing over an object, whereas innumerable impediments block the cognition of ordinary living beings. The cognition of the living beings has three divisions: direct knowledge, indirect knowledge and perverted knowledge. Sense perception of material objects by the mundane senses, such as the eye, ear, nose and hand, always produces definitely perverted knowledge. This illusion is a presentation of the material energy, which is influenced by the samvit-sakti in a perverted manner. Negative cognition of an object beyond the reach of sense perception is the way of indirect knowledge, which is not altogether imperfect but which produces only fragmentary knowledge in the form of impersonal spiritual realization and monism. But when the samvit factor of cognition is enlightened by the hladini potency of the same internal energy, they work together, and only thus can one attain knowledge of the Personality of Godhead. The samvit-sakti should be maintained in that state. Material knowledge and indirect spiritual knowledge are by-products of the samvit-sakti.
hladinira sara 'prema', prema-sara 'bhava'
bhavera parama-kastha, nama----'maha-bhava'
hladinira--of the pleasure potency; sara--the essence; prema--love for God; prema-sara--the essence of such love; bhava--emotion; bhavera--of emotion; parama-kastha--the highest limit; nama--named; maha-bhava--mahabhava.
The essence of the hladini potency is love of God, the essence of love of God is emotion [bhava], and the ultimate development of emotion is mahabhava.
The product of the hladini-sakti is love of Godhead, which has two divisions--namely, pure love of Godhead and adulterated love of Godhead. Only when the hladini sakti emanates from Sri Krsna and is bestowed upon the living being to attract Him does the living being become a pure lover of God. But when the same hladini-sakti is adulterated by the external, material energy and emanates from the living being, it does not attract Krsna; on the contrary, the living being becomes attracted by the glamor of the material energy. At that time instead of becoming mad with love of Godhead, the living being becomes mad after material sense enjoyment, and because of his association with the qualitative modes of material nature, he is captivated by its interactions of distressful, unhappy feelings.
maha-bhava--of mahabhava; svarupa--the form; sri-radha-thakurani--Srimati Radharani; sarva-guna--of all good qualities; khani--mine; krsna-kanta--of the lovers of Lord Krsna; siromani--crown jewel.
Sri Radha Thakurani is the embodiment of mahabhava. She is the repository of all good qualities and the crest jewel among all the lovely consorts of Lord Krsna.
The unadulterated action of the hladini-sakti is displayed in the dealings of the damsels of Vraja and Srimati Radharani, who is the topmost participant in that transcendental group. The essence of the hladini-sakti is love of Godhead, the essence of love of Godhead is bhava, or transcendental sentiment, and the highest pitch of that bhava is called mahabhava. Srimati Radharani is the personified embodiment of these three aspects of transcendental consciousness. She is therefore the highest principle in love of Godhead and is the supreme lovable object of Sri Krsna.
tayoh--of them; api--even; ubhayoh--of both (Candravali and Radharani); madhye--in the middle; radhika--Srimati Radharani; sarvatha--in every way; adhika--greater; maha-bhava-svarupa--the form of mahabhava; iyam--this one; gunaih--with good qualities; ativariyasi--the best of all.
"Of these two gopis [Radharani and Candravali], Srimati Radharani is superior in all respects. She is the embodiment of mahabhava, and She surpasses all in good qualities."
This text is verse 2 of the Ujjvala-nilamani of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
krsna-prema--love for Lord Krsna; bhavita--steeped in; yanra--whose; citta--mind; indriya--senses; kaya--body; krsna--of Lord Krsna; nija-sakti--His own energy; radha--Srimati Radharani; kridara--of pastimes; sahaya--companion.
Her mind, senses and body are steeped in love for Krsna. She is Krsna's own energy, and She helps Him in His pastimes.
Srimati Radharani is as fully spiritual as Krsna. No one should consider Her to be material. She is definitely not like the conditioned souls, who have material bodies, gross and subtle, covered by material senses. She is all-spiritual, and both Her body and mind are of the same spiritual embodiment. Because Her body is spiritual, Her senses are also spiritual. Thus Her body, mind and senses fully shine in love of Krsna. She is the personified hladini-sakti (the pleasure-giving energy of the Lord's internal potency), and therefore She is the only source of enjoyment for Sri Krsna.
Sri Krsna cannot enjoy anything that is internally different from Him. Therefore Radha and Sri Krsna are identical. The sandhini portion of Sri Krsna's internal potency has manifested the all-attractive form of Sri Krsna, and the same internal potency, in the hladini feature, has presented Srimati Radharani, who is the attraction for the ail-attractive. No one can match Srimati Radharani in the transcendental pastimes of Sri Krsna.
tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih
goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
ananda--bliss; cit--and knowledge; maya--consisting of; rasa--mellows; prati--at every second; bhavitabhih--who are engrossed with; tabhih--with those; yah--who; eva--certainly; nija-rupataya--with His own form; kalabhih--who are parts of portions of His pleasure potency; goloke--in Goloka Vrndavana; eva--certainly; nivasati--resides; akhila-atma--as the soul of all; bhutah--who exists; govindam--Lord Govinda; adi-purusam--the original personality; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Radha, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency [hladini]. Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa."
This text is from the Brahma-samhita (5.37).
krsnere karaya yaiche rasa asvadana
kridara sahaya yaiche, suna vivarana
krsnere--unto Lord Krsna; karaya--causes to do; yaiche--how; rasa--the mellows; asvadana--tasting; kridara--of pastimes; sahaya--helper; yaiche--how; suna--please hear; vivarana--the description.
Now please listen to how Lord Krsna's consorts help Him taste rasa and how they help in His pastimes.
krsna-kanta-gana dekhi tri-vidha prakara
eka laksmi-gana, pure mahisi-gana ara
vrajangana-rupa, ara kanta-gana-sara
sri-radhika haite kanta-ganera vistara
krsna-kanta-gana--the lovers of Lord Krsna; dekhi--I see; tri-vidha--three; prakara--kinds; eka--one; laksmi-gana--the goddesses of fortune; pure--in the city; mahisi-gana--the queens; ara--and; vraja-angana--of the beautiful women of Vraja; rupa--having the form; ara--another type; kanta-gana--of the lovers; sara--the essence; sri-radhika haite--from Srimati Radharani; kanta-ganera--of the lovers of Krsna; vistara--the expansion.
The beloved consorts of Lord Krsna are of three kinds: the goddesses of fortune, the queens, and the milkmaids of Vraja, who are the foremost of all. These consorts all proceed from Radhika.
avatari krsna yaiche kare avatara
amsini radha haite tina ganera vistara
avatari--the source of all incarnations; krsna--Lord Krsna; yaiche--just as; kare--makes; avatara--incarnation; amsini--the source of all portions; radha--Srimati Radharani; haite--from; tina--three; ganera--of the groups; vistara--expansion.
Just as the fountainhead, Lord Krsna, is the cause of all incarnations, so Sri Radha is the cause of all these consorts.
tara madhye--among them; vraje--in Vraja; nana--various; bhava--of moods; rasa--and of mellows; bhede--by differences; krsnake--Lord Krsna; karaya--cause to do; rasa-adika--beginning with the rasa dance; lila--of the pastimes; asvade--tasting.
Among them are various groups of consorts in Vraja who have varieties of sentiments and mellows. They help Lord Krsna taste all the sweetness of the rasa dance and other pastimes.
As already explained, Krsna and Radha are one in two. They are identical. Krsna expands Himself in multi-incarnations and plenary portions like the purusas. Similarly, Srimati Radharani expands Herself in multiforms as the goddesses of fortune, the queens and the damsels of Vraja. Such expansions from Srimati Radharani are all Her plenary portions. All these womanly forms of Krsna are expansions corresponding to His plenary expansions of Visnu forms. These expansions have been compared to reflected forms of the original form. There is no difference between the original form and the reflected forms. The female reflections of Krsna's pleasure potency are as good as Krsna Himself.
The plenary expansions of Krsna's personality are called vaibhava-vilasa and vaibhava-prakasa, and Radha's expansions are similarly described. The goddesses of fortune are Her vaibhava-vilasa forms, and the queens are her vaibhava-prakasa forms. The personal associates of Radharani, the damsels of Vraja, are direct expansions of Her body. As expansions of Her personal form and transcendental disposition, they are agents of different reciprocations of love in the pastimes of Lord Krsna, under the supreme direction of Srimati Radharani. In the transcendental realm, enjoyment is fully relished in variety. The exuberance of transcendental mellow is increased by the association of a large number of personalities similar to Radharani, who are also known as gopis or sakhis. The variety of innumerable mistresses is a source of relish for Sri Krsna, and therefore these expansions from Srimati Radharani are necessary for enhancing the pleasure potency of Sri Krsna. Their transcendental exchanges of love are the superexcellent affairs of the pastimes in Vrndavana. By these expansions of Srimati Radharani's personal body, She helps Lord Krsna taste the rasa dance and similar other activities. Srimati Radharani, being the central petal of the rasa-lila flower, is also known by the names found in the following verses.
govinda-anandini--She who gives pleasure to Govinda; radha--Srimati Radharani; govinda-mohini--She who mystifies Govinda; govinda-sarvasva--the be-all and end-all of Lord Govinda; sarva-kanta--of all the Lord's lovers; siromani--the crown jewel.
Radha is the one who gives pleasure to Govinda, and She is also the enchantress of Govinda. She is the be-all and end-all of Govinda, and the crest jewel of all His consorts.
devi krsna-mayi prokta
kantih sammohini para
devi--who shines brilliantly; krsna-mayi--nondifferent from Lord Krsna; prokta--called; radhika--Srimati Radharani; para-devata--most worshipable; sarva-laksmi-mayi--presiding over all the goddesses of fortune; sarva-kantih--in whom all splendor exists; sammohini--whose character completely bewilders Lord Krsna; para--the superior energy.
"The transcendental goddess Srimati Radharani is the direct counterpart of Lord Sri Krsna. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."
devi--the word devi; kahi--I say; dyotamana--shining; parama--most; sundari--beautiful; kimva--or; krsna-puja--of the worship of Lord Krsna; kridara--and of sports; vasati--the abode; nagari--the town.
"Devi" means "resplendent and most beautiful." Or else it means "the lovely abode of the worship and love sports of Lord Krsna."
"Krsna-mayi" means "one whose within and without are Lord Krsna." She sees Lord Krsna wherever She casts Her glance.
kimva, prema-rasa-maya krsnera svarupa
tanra sakti tanra saha haya eka-rupa
kimva--or; prema-rasa--the mellows of love; maya--made of; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; svarupa--the real nature; tanra--of Him; sakti--the energy; tanra saha--with Him; haya--there is; eka-rupa--oneness.
Or, She is identical with Lord Krsna, for She embodies the mellows of love. The energy of Lord Krsna is identical with Him.
Krsna-mayi has two different imports. First, a person who always thinks of Krsna both within and without and who always remembers only Krsna, wherever he goes or whatever he sees, is called krsna-mayi. Also, since Krsna's personality is full of love, His loving potency, Radharani, being nondifferent from Him, is called krsna-mayi.
krsna-vancha-purti-rupa kare aradhane
ataeva 'radhika' nama purane vakhane
krsna-vancha--of the desire of Lord Krsna; purti-rupa--of the nature of fulfillment; kare--does; aradhane--worship; ataeva--therefore; radhika--Srimati Radhika; nama--named; purane--in the Puranas; vakhane--in the description.
Her worship [aradhana] consists of fulfilling the desires of Lord Krsna. Therefore the Puranas call Her Radhika.
The name Radha is derived from the root word aradhana, which means "worship." The personality who excels all in worshiping Krsna may therefore be called Radhika, the greatest servitor.
bhagavan harir isvarah
yan no vihaya govindah
prito yam anayad rahah
anaya--by this one; aradhitah--worshiped; nunam--certainly; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; harih--Lord Krsna; isvarah--the Supreme Lord; yat--from which; nah--us; vihaya--leaving aside; govindah--Govinda; pritah--pleased; yam--whom; anayat--lead; rahah--to a lonely place.
"Truly the Personality of Godhead has been worshiped by Her. Therefore Lord Govinda, being pleased, has brought Her to a lonely spot, leaving us all behind."
This text is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.30.28).
ataeva sarva-pujya, parama-devata
sarva-palika, sarva jagatera mata
ataeva--therefore; sarva-pujya--worshipable by all; parama--supreme; devata--goddess; sarva-palika--the protectress of all; sarva jagatera--of all the universes; mata--the mother.
Therefore Radha is parama-devata, the supreme goddess, and She is worshipable for everyone. She is the protectress of all, and She is the mother of the entire universe.
'sarva-laksmi'-sabda purve kariyachi vyakhyana
sarva-laksmi-ganera tinho hana adhisthana
sarva-laksmi-sabda--the word sarva-laksmi; purve--previously; kariyachi--I have done; vyakhyana--explanation; sarva-laksmi-ganera--of all the goddesses of fortune; tinho--She; hana--is; adhisthana--abode.
I have already explained the meaning of "sarva-laksmi." Radha is the original source of all the goddesses of fortune.
kimva--or; sarva-laksmi--the word sarva-laksmi; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sat-vidha--six kinds; aisvarya--opulences; tanra--of Him; adhisthatri--chief; sakti--energy; sarva-sakti--of all energies; varya--the best.
Or "sarva-laksmi" indicates that She fully represents the six opulences of Krsna. Therefore She is the supreme energy of Lord Krsna.
sarva-saundarya-kanti vaisaye yanhate
sarva-laksmi-ganera sobha haya yanha haite
sarva-saundarya--of all beauty; kanti--the splendor; vaisaye--sits; yanhate--in whom; sarva-laksmi-ganera--of all the goddesses of fortune; sobha--the splendor; haya--is; yanha haite--from whom.
The word "sarva-kanti" indicates that all beauty and luster rest in Her body. All the laksmis derive their beauty from Her.
kimva 'kanti'-sabde krsnera saba iccha kahe
krsnera sakala vancha radhatei rahe
kimva--or; kanti-sabde--by the word kanti; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; saba--all; iccha--desires; kahe--says; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sakala--all; vancha--desires; radhatei--in Srimati Radharani; rahe--remain.
"Kanti" may also mean "all the desires of Lord Krsna." All the desires of Lord Krsna rest in Srimati Radharani.
radhika karena krsnera vanchita purana
'sarva-kanti'-sabdera ei artha vivarana
radhika--Srimati Radharani; karena--does; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; vanchita--desired object; purana--fulfilling; sarva-kanti-sabdera--of the word sarva-kanti; ei--this; artha--meaning; vivarana--the description.
Srimati Radhika fulfills all the desires of Lord Krsna. This is the meaning of "sarva-kanti."
jagat-mohana krsna, tanhara mohini
ataeva samastera para thakurani
They are indeed the same, just as musk and its scent are inseparable, or as fire and its heat are nondifferent.
radha-krsna aiche sada eka-i svarupa
lila-rasa asvadite dhare dui-rupa
radha-krsna--Radha and Krsna; aiche--in this way; sada--always; eka-i--one; svarupa--nature; lila-rasa--the mellows of a pastime; asvadite--to taste; dhare--manifest; dui-rupa--two forms.
Thus Radha and Lord Krsna are one, yet They have taken two forms to enjoy the mellows of pastimes.
prema-bhakti sikhaite apane avatari
radha-bhava-kanti dui angikara kari'
sri-krsna-caitanya-rupe kaila avatara
ei ta' pancama slokera artha paracara
prema-bhakti--devotional service in love of Godhead; sikhaite--to teach; apane--Himself; avatari--descending; radha-bhava--the mood of Srimati Radharani; kanti--and luster; dui--two; angikara kari'--accepting; sri-krsna-caitanya--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; rupe--in the form; kaila--made; avatara--incarnation; ei--this; ta'--certainly; pancama--fifth; slokera--of the verse; artha--meaning; paracara--proclamation.
To promulgate prema-bhakti [devotional service in love of Godhead], Krsna appeared as Sri Krsna Caitanya with the mood and complexion of Sri Radha. Thus I have explained the meaning of the fifth verse.
sastha slokera artha karite prakasa
prathame kahiye sei slokera abhasa
sastha--sixth; slokera--of the verse; artha--meaning; karite--to do; prakasa--manifestation; prathame--first; kahiye--I shall speak; sei--that; slokera--of the verse; abhasa--hint.
To explain the sixth verse, I shall first give a hint of its meaning.
avatari'--incarnating; prabhu--the Lord; pracarila--propagated; sankirtana--the congregational chanting of the holy name; eho--this; bahya--external; hetu--reason; purve--previously; kariyachi--I have given; sucana--indication.
The Lord came to propagate sankirtana. That is an external purpose, as I have already indicated.
avatarera ara eka ache mukhya-bija
rasika-sekhara krsnera sei karya nija
avatarera--of the incarnation; ara--another; eka--one; ache--there is; mukhya-bija--principal seed; rasika-sekhara--the foremost enjoyer of the mellows of love; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sei--that; karya--business; nija--own.
There is a principal cause for Lord Krsna's appearance. It grows from His own engagements as the foremost enjoyer of loving exchanges.
ati gudha hetu sei tri-vidha prakara
damodara-svarupa haite yahara pracara
Svarupa Gosani is the most intimate associate of the Lord. He, therefore, knows all these topics well.
Prior to the Lord's acceptance of the renounced order, Purusottama Bhattacarya, a resident of Navadvipa, desired to enter the renounced order of life. Therefore he left home and went to Benares, where he accepted the position of brahmacarya from a Mayavadi sannyasi. When he became a brahmacari, he was given the name Sri Damodara Svarupa. He left Benares shortly after, without taking sannyasa, and he came to Nilacala, Jagannatha Puri, where Lord Caitanya was staying. He met Caitanya Mahaprabhu there and dedicated his life for the service of the Lord. He became Lord Caitanya's secretary and constant companion. He used to enhance the pleasure potency of the Lord by singing appropriate songs, which were very much appreciated. Svarupa Damodara could understand the secret mission of Lord Caitanya, and it was by his grace only that all the devotees of Lord Caitanya could know the real purpose of the Lord.
Svarupa Damodara has been identified as Lalita-devi, the second expansion of Radharani. However, the authoritative Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika of Kavi-karnapura describes Svarupa Damodara as the same Visakha-devi who serves the Lord in Goloka Vrndavana. Therefore it is to be understood that Sri Svarupa Damodara is a direct expansion of Radharani who helps the Lord experience the attitude of Radharani.
radhikara bhava-murti prabhura antara
sei bhave sukha-duhkha uthe nirantara
radhikara--of Srimati Radharani; bhava-murti--the form of the emotions; prabhura--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; antara--the heart; sei--that; bhave--in the condition; sukha-duhkha--happiness and distress; uthe--arise; nirantara--constantly.
The heart of Lord Caitanya is the image of Sri Radhika's emotions. Thus feelings of pleasure and pain arise constantly therein.
Lord Caitanya's heart was full of the feelings of Srimati Radharani, and His appearance resembled Hers. Svarupa Damodara has explained His attitude as radha-bhava-murti, the attitude of Radharani. One who engages in sense gratification on the material platform can hardly understand radha-bhava, but one who is freed from the demands of sense gratification can understand it. Radha-bhava must be understood from the Gosvamis, those who are actually controllers of the senses. From such authorized sources it is to be known that the attitude of Srimati Radharani is the highest perfection of conjugal love, which is the highest of the five transcendental mellows, and it is the complete perfection of love of Krsna.
These transcendental affairs can be understood on two platforms. One is called elevated, and the other is called superelevated. The loving affairs exhibited in Dvaraka are the elevated form. The superelevated position is reached in the manifestations of the pastimes of Vrndavana. The attitude of Lord Caitanya is certainly superelevated.
From the life of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, an intelligent person engaged in pure devotional service can understand that He always felt separation from Krsna within Himself. In that separation He sometimes felt that He had found Krsna and was enjoying the meeting. The significance of this separation and meeting is very specific. If someone tries to understand the exalted position of Lord Caitanya without knowing this, he is sure to misunderstand it. One must first become fully self-realized. Otherwise one may misidentify the Lord as nagara, or the enjoyer of the damsels of Vraja, thus committing the mistake of rasabhasa, or overlapping understanding.
sesa-lilaya prabhura krsna-viraha-unmada
bhrama-maya cesta, ara pralapa-maya vada
sesa-lilaya--in the final pastimes; prabhura--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; krsna-viraha--from separation from Lord Krsna; unmada--the madness; bhrama-maya--erroneous; cesta--efforts; ara--and; pralapa-maya--delirious; vada--talk.
In the final portion of His pastimes, Lord Caitanya was obsessed with the madness of separation from Lord Krsna. He acted in erroneous ways and talked deliriously.
Lord Sri Caitanya exhibited the highest stage of the feelings of a devotee in separation from the Lord. This exhibition was sublime because He was completely perfect in the feelings of separation. Materialists, however, cannot understand this. Sometimes materialistic scholars think He was diseased or crazy. Their problem is that they always engage in material sense gratification and can never understand the feelings of the devotees and the Lord. Materialists are most abominable in their ideas. They think that they can enjoy directly perceivable gross objects by their senses and that they can similarly deal with the transcendental features of Lord Caitanya. But the Lord is understood only in pursuance of the principles laid down by the Gosvamis, headed by Svarupa Damodara. Doctrines like those of the nadiya-nagaris, a class of so-called devotees, are never presented by authorized persons like Svarupa Damodara or the six Gosvamis. The ideas of the gauranga-nagaris are simply a mental concoction, and they are completely on the mental platform.
radhikara bhava yaiche uddhava-darsane
sei bhave matta prabhu rahe ratri-dine
radhikara--of Srimati Radharani; bhava--emotion; yaiche--just as; uddhava-darsane--in seeing Sri Uddhava; sei--that; bhave--in the state; matta--maddened; prabhu--Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; rahe--remains; ratri-dine--day and night.
Just as Radhika went mad at the sight of Uddhava, so Lord Caitanya was obsessed day and night with the madness of separation.
Those under the shelter of the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu can understand that His mode of worship of the Supreme Lord Krsna in separation is the real worship of the Lord. When the feelings of separation become very intense, one attains the stage of meeting Sri Krsna.
So-called devotees like the sahajiyas cheaply imagine they are meeting Krsna in Vrndavana. Such thinking may be useful, but actually meeting Krsna is possible through the attitude of separation taught by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Parental affection made His childhood fruitful. His boyhood was successful with His friends.
radhikadi lana kaila rasadi-vilasa
vancha bhari' asvadila rasera niryasa
radhika-adi--Srimati Radharani and the other gopis; lana--taking along; kaila--did; rasa-adi--beginning with the rasa dance; vilasa--pastimes; vancha bhari'--fulfilling desires; asvadila--He tasted; rasera--of mellow; niryasa--the essence.
In youth He tasted the essence of rasa, fulfilling His desires in pastimes like the rasa dance with Srimati Radhika and the other gopis.
kaisora-vayase kama, jagat-sakala
rasadi-lilaya tina karila saphala
kaisora-vayase--in the adolescent age; kama--amorous love; jagat-sakala--the entire universe; rasa-adi--such as the rasa dance; lilaya--by pastimes; tina--three; karila--made; sa-phala--successful.
In His youth Lord Krsna made all three of His ages, and the entire universe, successful by His pastimes of amorous love like the rasa dance.
so 'pi kaisoraka-vayo
sah--He; api--especially; kaisoraka-vayah--the age of adolescence; manayan--honoring; madhu-sudanah--the killer of the Madhu demon; reme--enjoyed; stri-ratna--of the gopis; kuta--in multitudes; sthah--situated; ksapasu--in the autumn nights; ksapita-ahitah--who destroys misfortune.
"Lord Madhusudana enjoyed His youth with pastimes on autumn nights in the midst of the jewellike milkmaids. Thus He dispelled all the misfortunes of the world."
vaca--by speech; sucita--revealing; sarvari--of the night; rati--in amorous pastimes; kala--of the portion; pragalbhyaya--the importance; radhikam--Srimati Radharani; vrida--from shame; kuncita-locanam--having Her eyes closed; viracayan--making; agre--before; sakhinam--Her friends; asau--that one; tat--of Her; vaksah-ruha--on the breasts; citra-keli--with variegated pastimes; makari--in drawing dolphins; panditya--of cleverness; param--the limit; gatah--who reached; kaisoram--adolescence; sa-phali-karoti--makes successful; kalayan--performing; kunje--in the bushes; viharam--pastimes; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
"Lord Krsna made Srimati Radharani close Her eyes in shame before Her friends by His words relating Their amorous activities on the previous night. Then He showed the highest limit of cleverness in drawing pictures of dolphins in various playful sports on Her breasts. In this way Lord Hari made His youth successful by performing pastimes in the bushes with Sri Radha and Her friends."
This is a verse from the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.1.231) of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
harir esa na ced avatarisyan
mathurayam madhuraksi radhika ca
abhavisyad iyam vrtha visrstir
makarankas tu visesatas tadatra
harih--Lord Krsna; esah--this; na--not; cet--if; avatarisyat--would have descended; mathurayam--in Mathura; madhura-aksi--O lovely-eyed one (Paurnamasi); radhika--Srimati Radhika; ca--and; abhavisyat--would have been; iyam--this; vrtha--useless; visrstih--the whole creation; makara-ankah--the demigod of love, Cupid; tu--then; visesatah--above all; tada--then; atra--in this.
"O Paurnamasi, if Lord Hari had not descended in Mathura with Srimati Radharani, this entire creation--and especially Cupid, the demigod of love--would have been useless."
This verse is spoken by Sri Vrnda-devi in the Vidagdha-madhava (7.3) of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
ei mata purve krsna rasera sadana
yadyapi karila rasa-niryasa-carvana
tathapi nahila tina vanchita purana
taha asvadite yadi karila yatana
Even though Lord Krsna, the abode of all mellows, had previously in this way chewed the essence of the mellows of love, still He was unable to fulfill three desires, although He made efforts to taste them.
"The love of Radhika is My teacher, and I am Her dancing pupil. Her prema makes Me dance various novel dances."
kasmad vrnde priya-sakhi hareh pada-mulat kuto 'sau
kundaranye kim iha kurute nrtya-siksam guruh kah
tam tvan-murtih prati-taru-latam dig-vidiksu sphuranti
sailusiva bhramati parito nartayanti sva-pascat
kasmat--from where; vrnde--O Vrnda; priya-sakhi--O dear friend; hareh--of Lord Hari; pada-mulat--from the lotus feet; kutah--where; asau--that one (Lord Krsna); kunda-aranye--in the forest on the bank of Radha-kunda; kim--what; iha--here; kurute--He does; nrtya-siksam--dancing practice; guruh--teacher; kah--who; tam--Him; tvat-murtih--Your form; prati-taru-latam--on every tree and vine; dik-vidiksu--in all directions; sphuranti--appearing; sailusi--expert dancer; iva--like; bhramati--wanders; paritah--all around; nartayanti--causing to dance; sva-pascat--behind.
"O my beloved friend Vrnda, where are you coming from?"
"I am coming from the feet of Sri Hari."
"Where is He?"
"In the forest on the bank of Radha-kunda."
"What is He doing there?"
"He is learning dancing."
"Who is His master?"
"Your image, Radha, revealing itself in every tree and creeper in every direction, is roaming like a skillful dancer, making Him dance behind."
This text is from the Govinda-lilamrta (8.77) of Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
nija-premasvade mora haya ye ahlada
taha ha'te koti-guna radha-premasvada
nija--own; prema--love; asvade--in tasting; mora--My; haya--there is; ye--whatever; ahlada--pleasure; taha ha'te--than that; koti-guna--ten million times greater; radha--of Srimati Radharani; prema-asvada--the tasting of love.
"Whatever pleasure I get from tasting My love for Srimati Radharani, She tastes ten million times more than Me by Her love."
ami yaiche paraspara viruddha-dharmasraya
radha-prema taiche sada viruddha-dharma-maya
ami--I; yaiche--just as; paraspara--mutually; viruddha-dharma--of conflicting characteristics; asraya--the abode; radha-prema--the love of Srimati Radharani; taiche--just so; sada--always; viruddha-dharma-maya--consists of conflicting characteristics.
"Just as I am the abode of all mutually contradictory characteristics, so Radha's love is always full of similar contradictions."
radha-prema vibhu----yara badite nahi thani
tathapi se ksane ksane badaye sadai
radha-prema--the love of Srimati Radharani; vibhu--all-pervading; yara--of which; badite--to increase; nahi--there is not; thani--space; tathapi--still; se--that; ksane ksane--every second; badaye--increases; sadai--always.
"Radha's love is all-pervading, leaving no room for expansion. But still it is expanding constantly."
yaha va-i guru vastu nahi suniscita
tathapi gurura dharma gaurava-varjita
yaha--which; va-i--besides; guru--great; vastu--thing; nahi--there is not; suniscita--quite certainly; tathapi--still; gurura--of greatness; dharma--characteristics; gaurava-varjita--devoid of pride.
"There is certainly nothing greater than Her love. But Her love is devoid of pride. That is the sign of its greatness."
yaha haite sunirmala dvitiya nahi ara
tathapi sarvada vamya-vakra-vyavahara
"Nothing is purer than Her love. But its behavior is always perverse and crooked."
vibhur api kalayan sadabhivrddhim
gurur api gaurava-caryaya vihinah
muhur upacita-vakrimapi suddho
jayati mura-dvisi radhikanuragah
vibhuh--all-pervading; api--although; kalayan--making; sada--always; abhivrddhim--increase; guruh--important; api--although; gaurava-caryaya vihinah--without proud behavior; muhuh--again and again; upacita--increased; vakrima--duplicity; api--although; suddhah--pure; jayati--all glories to; mura-dvisi--for Krsna, the enemy of the demon Mura; radhika--of Srimati Radharani; anuragah--the love.
"All glories to Radha's love for Krsna, the enemy of the demon Mura. Although it is all-pervading, it tends to increase at every moment. Although it is important, it is devoid of pride. And although it is pure, it is always beset with duplicity."
This is a verse from the Dana-keli-kaumudi (2) of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
sei premara sri-radhika parama 'asraya'
sei premara ami ha-i kevala 'visaya'
sei--that; premara--of the love; sri-radhika--Srimati Radharani; parama--highest; asraya--abode; sei--that; premara--of the love; ami--I; ha-i--am; kevala--only; visaya--object.
"Sri Radhika is the highest abode of that love, and I am its only object."
visaya-jatiya sukha amara asvada
ama haite koti-guna asrayera ahlada
visaya jatiya--relating to the object; sukha--happiness; amara--My; asvada--tasting; ama haite--than Me; koti-guna--ten million times more; asrayera--of the abode; ahlada--pleasure.
"I taste the bliss to which the object of love is entitled. But the pleasure of Radha, the abode of that love, is ten million times greater."
asraya-jatiya sukha paite mana dhaya
yatne asvadite nari, ki kari upaya
asraya-jatiya--relating to the abode; sukha--happiness; paite--to obtain; mana--the mind; dhaya--chases; yatne--by effort; asvadite--to taste; nari--I am unable; ki--what; kari--I do; upaya--way.
"My mind races to taste the pleasure experienced by the abode, but I cannot taste it, even by My best efforts. How may I taste it?"
kabhu yadi ei premara ha-iye asraya
tabe ei premanandera anubhava haya
kabhu--sometime; yadi--if; ei--this; premara--of the love; ha-iye--I become; asraya--the abode; tabe--then; ei--this; prema-anandera--of the joy of love; anubhava--experience; haya--there is.
"If sometime I can be the abode of that love, only then may I taste its joy."
Visaya and asraya are two very significant words relating to the reciprocation between Krsna and His devotee. The devotee is called the asraya, and his beloved, Krsna, is the visaya. Different ingredients are involved in the exchange of love between the asraya and visaya, which are known as vibhava, anubhava, sattvika and vyabhicari. Vibhava is divided into the two categories alambana and uddipana. Alambana may be further divided into asraya and visaya. In the loving affairs of Radha and Krsna, Radharani is the asraya feature and Krsna the visaya. The transcendental consciousness of the Lord tells Him, "I am Krsna, and I experience pleasure as the visaya. The pleasure enjoyed by Radharani, the asraya, is many times greater than the pleasure I feel." Therefore, to feel the pleasure of the asraya category, Lord Krsna appeared as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
eta cinti' rahe krsna parama-kautuki
hrdaye badaye prema-lobha dhakdhaki
eta cinti'--thinking this; rahe--remains; krsna--Lord Krsna; parama-kautuki--the supremely curious; hrdaye--in the heart; badaye--increases; prema-lobha--eager desire for love; dhakdhaki--blazing.
Thinking in this way, Lord Krsna was curious to taste that love. His eager desire for that love increasingly blazed in His heart.
ei eka, suna ara lobhera prakara
sva-madhurya dekhi' krsna karena vicara
"If I deliberate on a way to taste it, I find that I hanker for the position of Radhika."
Krsna's attractiveness is wonderful and unlimited. No one can know the end of it. Srimati Radharani alone can relish such extensiveness from Her position in the asraya category. The mirror of Srimati Radharani's transcendental love is perfectly clear, yet it appears clearer and clearest in the transcendental method of understanding Krsna. In the mirror of Radharani's heart, the transcendental features of Krsna appear increasingly new and fresh. In other words, the attraction of Krsna increases in proportion to the understanding of Srimati Radharani. Each tries to supersede the other. Neither wants to be defeated in increasing the intensity of love. Desiring to understand Radharani's attitude of increasing love, Lord Krsna appeared as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
aparikalita-purvah kas camatkara-kari
sphurati mama gariyan esa madhurya-purah
ayam aham api hanta preksya yam lubdha-cetah
sarabhasam upabhoktum kamaye radhikeva
"Who manifests an abundance of sweetness greater than Mine, which has never been experienced before and which causes wonder to all? Alas, I Myself, My mind bewildered upon seeing this beauty, impetuously desire to enjoy it like Srimati Radharani."
This text is from the Lalita-madhava (8.34) of Srila Rupa Gosvami. It was spoken by Lord Krsna when He saw the beauty of His own reflection in a jeweled fountain in Dvaraka.
All minds are attracted by hearing His sweet voice and flute, or by seeing His beauty. Even Lord Krsna Himself makes efforts to taste that sweetness.
e madhuryamrta pana sada yei kare
trsna-santi nahe, trsna badhe nirantare
e--this; madhurya-amrta--nectar of sweetness; pana--drinks; sada--always; yei--that person who; kare--does; trsna-santi--satisfaction of thirst; nahe--there is not; trsna--thirst; badhe--increases; nirantare--constantly.
The thirst of one who always drinks the nectar of that sweetness is never satisfied. Rather, that thirst increases constantly.
atrpta ha-iya kare vidhira nindana
avidagdha vidhi bhala na jane srjana
atrpta--unsatisfied; ha-iya--being; kare--do; vidhira--of Lord Brahma; nindana--blaspheming; avidagdha--inexperienced; vidhi--Lord Brahma; bhala--well; na jane--does not know; srjana--creating.
Such a person, being unsatisfied, begins to blaspheme Lord Brahma, saying that he does not know the art of creating well and is simply inexperienced.
koti netra nahi dila, sabe dila dui
tahate nimesa,----krsna ki dekhiba muni
He has not given millions of eyes to see the beauty of Krsna. He has given only two eyes, and even those eyes blink. How then shall I see the lovely face of Krsna?
atati yad bhavan ahni kananam
trutir yugayate tvam apasyatam
kutila-kuntalam sri-mukham ca te
jada udiksatam paksma-krd drsam
atati--goes; yat--when; bhavan--Your Lordship; ahni--in the day; kananam--to the forest; trutih--half a second; yugayate--appears like a yuga; tvam--You; apasyatam--of those not seeing; kutila-kuntalam--adorned with curled hair; sri-mukham--beautiful face; ca--and; te--Your; jadah--stupid; udiksatam--looking at; paksma-krt--the maker of eyelashes; drsam--of the eyes.
[The gopis say:] "O Krsna, when You go to the forest during the day and we do not see Your sweet face, which is surrounded by beautiful curling hair, half a second becomes as long as an entire age for us. And we consider the creator, who has put eyelids on the eyes we use for seeing You, to be simply a fool."
This verse is spoken by the gopis in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.31.15).
gopyas ca krsnam upalabhya cirad abhistam
yat-preksane drsisu paksma-krtam sapanti
drgbhir hrdi krtam alam parirabhya sarvas
tad-bhavam apur api nitya-yujam durapam
gopyah--the gopis; ca--and; krsnam--Lord Krsna; upalabhya--seeing; cirat--after a long time; abhistam--desired object; yat-preksane--in the seeing of whom; drsisu--in the eyes; paksma-krtam--the maker of eyelashes; sapanti--curse; drgbhih--with the eyes; hrdi krtam--who entered the heart; alam--enough; parirabhya--embracing; sarvah--all; tat-bhavam--that highest stage of joy; apuh--obtained; api--although; nitya-yujam--by perfected yogis; durapam--difficult to obtain.
"The gopis saw their beloved Krsna at Kuruksetra after a long separation. They secured and embraced Him in their hearts through their eyes, and they attained a joy so intense that not even perfect yogis can attain it. The gopis cursed the creator for creating eyelids that interfered with their vision."
This text is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.82.39).
krsnavalokana vina netra phala nahi ana
yei jana krsna dekhe, sei bhagyavan
There is no other consummation for the eyes than the sight of Krsna. Whoever sees Him is most fortunate indeed.
aksanvatam phalam idam na param vidamah
sakhyah pasun anuvivesayator vayasyaih
vaktram vrajesa-sutayor anuvenu-justam
yair va nipitam anurakta-kataksa-moksam
aksanvatam--of those who have eyes; phalam--the fruit; idam--this; na--not; param--other; vidamah--we know; sakhyah--O friends; pasun--the cows; anuvivesayatoh--causing to enter one forest from another; vayasyaih--with Their friends of the same age; vaktram--the faces; vraja-isa--of Maharaja Nanda; sutayoh--of the two sons; anuvenu-justam--possessed of flutes; yaih--by which; va--or; nipitam--imbibed; anurakta--loving; kata-aksa--glances; moksam--giving off.
[The gopis say:] "O friends, those eyes that see the beautiful faces of the sons of Maharaja Nanda are certainly fortunate. As these two sons enter the forest, surrounded by Their friends, driving the cows before Them, They hold Their flutes to Their mouths and glance lovingly upon the residents of Vrndavana. For those who have eyes, we think there is no greater object of vision."
Like the gopis, one can see Krsna continuously if one is fortunate enough. In the Brahma-samhita it is said that sages whose eyes have been smeared with the ointment of pure love can see the form of Syamasundara (Krsna) continuously in the centers of their hearts. This text from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.21.7) was sung by the gopis on the advent of the sarat season.
gopyas tapah kim acaran yad amusya rupam
lavanya-saram asamordhvam ananya-siddham
drgbhih pibanty anusavabhinavam durapam
ekanta-dhama yasasah sriya aisvarasya
gopyah--the gopis; tapah--austerities; kim--what; acaran--performed; yat--from which; amusya--of such a one (Lord Krsna); rupam--the form; lavanya-saram--the essence of loveliness; asama-urdhvam--not paralleled or surpassed; ananya-siddham--not perfected by any other ornament (self-perfect); drgbhih--by the eyes; pibanti--they drink; anusava-abhinavam--constantly new; durapam--difficult to obtain; ekanta-dhama--the only abode; yasasah--of fame; sriyah--of beauty; aisvarasya--of opulence.
[The women of Mathura say:] "What austerities must the gopis have performed? With their eyes they always drink the nectar of the form of Lord Krsna, which is the essence of loveliness and is not to be equaled or surpassed. That loveliness is the only abode of beauty, fame and opulence. It is self-perfect, ever fresh and extremely rare."
This text from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.44.14) was spoken by the women of Mathura when they saw Krsna and Balarama in the arena with King Kamsa's great wrestlers Mustika and Canura.
apurva madhuri krsnera, apurva tara bala
yahara sravane mana haya talamala
krsnera--of Lord Krsna; madhurye--in the sweetness; krsne--in Lord Krsna; upajaya--arises; lobha--eager desire; samyak--fully; asvadite--to taste; nare--is not able; mane--in the mind; rahe--remains; ksobha--sorrow.
Lord Krsna's own beauty attracts Lord Krsna Himself. But because He cannot fully enjoy it, His mind remains full of sorrow.
ei ta' dvitiya hetura kahila vivarana
trtiya hetura ebe sunaha laksana
ei--this; ta'--certainly; dvitiya--second; hetura--of the reason; kahila--has been said; vivarana--description; trtiya--the third; hetura--of the reason; ebe--now; sunaha--please hear; laksana--the characteristic.
This is a description of His second desire. Now please listen as I describe the third.
atyanta-nigudha ei rasera siddhanta
svarupa-gosani matra janena ekanta
yeba--whoever; keha--someone; anya--other; jane--knows; seho--he; tanha haite--from him (Svarupa Damodara); caitanya-gosanira--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tenha--he; atyanta--extremely; marma--secret core; yate--since.
Anyone else who claims to know it must have heard it from him, for he was the most intimate companion of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
gopi-ganera premera 'rudha-bhava' nama
visuddha nirmala prema, kabhu nahe kama
gopi-ganera--of the gopis; premera--of the love; rudha-bhava--rudha-bhava; nama--named; visuddha--pure; nirmala--spotless; prema--love; kabhu--at anytime; nahe--is not; kama--lust.
The love of the gopis is called rudha-bhava. It is pure and spotless. It is not at any time lust.
As already explained, the position of the gopis in their loving dealings with Krsna is transcendental. Their emotion is called rudha-bhava. Although it is apparently like mundane sex, one should not confuse it with mundane sexual love, for it is pure and unadulterated love of Godhead.
prema--love; eva--only; gopa-ramanam--of the women of Vraja; kamah--lust; iti--as; agamat--went to; pratham--fame; iti--thus; uddhava-adayah--headed by Sri Uddhava; api--even; etam--this; vanchanti--desire; bhagavat-priyah--dear devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
"The pure love of the gopis has become celebrated by the name 'lust.' The dear devotees of the Lord, headed by Sri Uddhava, desire to taste that love."
This is a verse from Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.285).
kama, prema,----donhakara vibhinna laksana
lauha ara hema yaiche svarupe vilaksana
Lust and love have different characteristics, just as iron and gold have different natures.
One should try to discriminate between sexual love and pure love, for they belong to different categories, with a gulf of difference between them. They are as different from one another as iron is from gold.
atmendriya-priti-vancha----tare bali 'kama'
krsnendriya-priti-iccha dhare 'prema' nama
atma-indriya-priti--for the pleasure of one's own senses; vancha--desires; tare--to that; bali--I say; kama--lust; krsna-indriya-priti--for the pleasure of Lord Krsna's senses; iccha--desire; dhare--holds; prema--love; nama--the name.
The desire to gratify one's own senses is kama [lust], but the desire to please the senses of Lord Krsna is prema [love].
The revealed scriptures describe pure love as follows:
saty api dhvamsa-karane
yad bhava-bandhanam yunoh
sa prema parikirtitah
"If there is ample reason for the dissolution of a conjugal relationship and yet such a dissolution does not take place, such a relationship of intimate love is called pure."
The predominated gopis were bound to Krsna in such pure love. For them there was no question of sexual love based on sense gratification. Their only engagement in life was to see Krsna happy in all respects, regardless of their own personal interests. They dedicated their souls only for the satisfaction of the Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna. There was not the slightest tinge of sexual love between the gopis and Krsna.
The author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta asserts with authority that sexual love is a matter of personal sense enjoyment. All the regulative principles in the Vedas pertaining to desires for popularity, fatherhood, wealth and so on are different phases of sense gratification. Acts of sense gratification may be performed under the cover of public welfare, nationalism, religion, altruism, ethical codes, Biblical codes, health directives, fruitive action, bashfulness, tolerance, personal comfort, liberation from material bondage, progress, family affection or fear of social ostracism or legal punishment, but all these categories are different subdivisions of one substance--sense gratification. All such good acts are performed basically for one's own sense gratification, for no one can sacrifice his personal interest while discharging these much-advertised moral and religious principles. But above all this is a transcendental stage in which one feels himself to be only an eternal servitor of Krsna, the absolute Personality of Godhead. All acts performed in this sense of servitude are called pure love of God because they are performed for the absolute sense gratification of Sri Krsna. However, any act performed for the purpose of enjoying its fruits or results is an act of sense gratification. Such actions are visible sometimes in gross and sometimes in subtle forms.
kamera tatparya----nija-sambhoga kevala
krsna-sukha-tatparya-matra prema ta' prabala
sarva-tyaga kari' kare krsnera bhajana
krsna-sukha-hetu kare prema-sevana
loka-dharma--customs of the people; veda-dharma--Vedic injunctions; deha-dharma--necessities of the body; karma--fruitive work; lajja--bashfulness; dhairya--patience; deha-sukha--the happiness of the body; atma-sukha--the happiness of the self; marma--the essence; dustyaja--difficult to give up; arya-patha--the path of varnasrama; nija--own; parijana--family members; sva-jane--one's own family; karaye--do; yata--all; tadana--punishment; bhartsana--scolding; sarva-tyaga kari'--giving up everything; kare--do; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; bhajana--worship; krsna-sukha-hetu--for the purpose of Lord Krsna's happiness; kare--do; prema--out of love; sevana--service.
Social customs, scriptural injunctions, bodily demands, fruitive action, shyness, patience, bodily pleasures, self-gratification and the path of varnasrama-dharma, which is difficult to give up--the gopis have forsaken all these, as well as their own relatives and their punishment and scolding, for the sake of serving Lord Krsna. They render loving service to Him for the sake of His enjoyment.
ihake kahiye krsne drdha anuraga
svaccha dhauta-vastre yaiche nahi kona daga
That is called firm attachment to Lord Krsna. It is spotlessly pure, like a clean cloth that has no stain.
The author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta advises everyone to give up all engagements of sense gratification and, like the gopis, dovetail oneself entirely with the will of the Supreme Lord. That is the ultimate instruction of Krsna in the Bhagavad-gita. We should be prepared to do anything and everything to please the Lord, even at the risk of violating the Vedic principles or ethical laws. That is the standard of love of Godhead. Such activities in pure love of Godhead are as spotless as white linen that has been completely washed. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura warns us in this connection that we should not mistakenly think that the idea of giving up everything implies the renunciation of duties necessary in relation to the body and mind. Even such duties are not sense gratification if they are undertaken in a spirit of service to Krsna.
ataeva kama-preme bahuta antara
kama----andha-tamah, prema----nirmala bhaskara
Therefore lust and love are quite different. Lust is like dense darkness, but love is like the bright sun.
ataeva gopi-ganera nahi kama-gandha
krsna-sukha lagi matra, krsna se sambandha
ataeva--therefore; gopi-ganera--of the gopis; nahi--not; kama-gandha--the slightest bit of lust; krsna-sukha--the happiness of Lord Krsna; lagi--for; matra--only; krsna--Lord Krsna; se--that; sambandha--the relationship.
Thus there is not the slightest taint of lust in the gopis' love. Their relationship with Krsna is only for the sake of His enjoyment.
yat te sujata-caranamburuham stanesu
bhitah sanaih priya dadhimahi karkasesu
tenatavim atasi tad vyathate na kim svit
kurpadibhir bhramati dhir bhavad-ayusam nah
yat--which; te--Your; sujata--very fine; carana-ambu-ruham--lotus feet; stanesu--on the breasts; bhitah--being afraid; sanaih--gently; priya--O dear one; dadhimahi--we place; karkasesu--rough; tena--with them; atavim--the path; atasi--You roam; tat--they; vyathate--are distressed; na--not; kim svit--we wonder; kurpa-adibhih--by small stones and so on; bhramati--flutters; dhih--the mind; bhavat-ayusam--of those of whom Your Lordship is the very life; nah--of us.
"O dearly beloved! Your lotus feet are so soft that we place them gently on our breasts, fearing that Your feet will be hurt. Our life rests only in You. Our minds, therefore, are filled with anxiety that Your tender feet might be wounded by pebbles as You roam about on the forest path."
This text from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.31.19) was spoken by the gopis when Krsna left them in the midst of the rasa-lila.
atma-sukha-duhkhe gopira nahika vicara
krsna-sukha-hetu cesta mano-vyavahara
atma-sukha-duhkhe--in personal happiness or distress; gopira--of the gopis; nahika--not; vicara--consideration; krsna-sukha-hetu--for the purpose of Lord Krsna's happiness; cesta--activity; manah--of the mind; vyavahara--the business.
The gopis do not care for their own pleasures or pains. All their physical and mental activities are directed toward offering enjoyment to Lord Krsna.
krsna lagi' ara saba kare parityaga
krsna-sukha-hetu kare suddha anuraga
krsna lagi'--for Lord Krsna; ara--other; saba--all; kare--do; parityaga--give up; krsna-sukha-hetu--for the purpose of Lord Krsna's happiness; kare--do; suddha--pure; anuraga--attachments.
They renounced everything for Krsna. They have pure attachment to giving Krsna pleasure.
svanam hi vo mayy anuvrttaye 'balah
maya paroksam bhajata tirohitam
masuyitum marhatha tat priyam priyah
evam--thus; mat-artha--for Me; ujjhita--rejected; loka--popular customs; veda--Vedic injunctions; svanam--own families; hi--certainly; vah--of you; mayi--Me; anuvrttaye--to increase regard for; abalah--O women; maya--by Me; paroksam--invisible; bhajata--favoring; tirohitam--withdrawn from sight; ma--Me; asuyitum--to be displeased with; ma arhatha--you do not deserve; tat--therefore; priyam--who is dear; priyah--O dear ones.
"O My beloved gopis, you have renounced social customs, scriptural injunctions and your relatives for My sake. I disappeared behind you only to increase your concentration upon Me. Since I disappeared for your benefit, you should not be displeased with Me."
This text from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.32.21) was spoken by Lord Krsna when He returned to the arena of the rasa-lila.
Lord Krsna has a promise from before to reciprocate with His devotees according to the way they worship Him.
ye yatha mam prapadyante
tams tathaiva bhajamy aham
manusyah partha sarvasah
ye--those who; yatha--as; mam--to Me; prapadyante--surrender; tan--them; tatha--so; eva--certainly; bhajami--reward; aham--I; mama--My; vartma--path; anuvartante--follow; manusyah--men; partha--O son of Prtha; sarvasah--in all respects.
"In whatever way My devotees surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Prtha."
Krsna was never ungrateful to the gopis, for as He declares to Arjuna in this verse from the Bhagavad-gita (4.11), He reciprocates with His devotees in proportion to the transcendental loving service they render unto Him. Everyone follows the path that leads toward Him, but there are different degrees of progress on that path, and the Lord is realized in proportion to one's advancement. The path is one, but the progress in approaching the ultimate goal is different, and therefore the proportion of realization of this goal--namely the absolute Personality of Godhead--is also different. The gopis attained the highest goal, and Lord Caitanya affirmed that there is no higher method of worshiping God than that followed by the gopis.
se pratijna bhanga haila gopira bhajane
tahate pramana krsna-sri-mukha-vacane
se--that; pratijna--promise; bhanga haila--was broken; gopira--of the gopis; bhajane--by the worship; tahate--in that; pramana--the proof; krsna--of Lord Krsna; sri-mukha-vacane--by the words from the mouth.
That promise has been broken by the worship of the gopis, as Lord Krsna Himself admits.
na paraye 'ham niravadya-samyujam
sva-sadhu-krtyam vibudhayusapi vah
ya mabhajan durjaya-geha-srnkhalah
samvrscya tad vah pratiyatu sadhuna
na--not; paraye--am able to make; aham--I; niravadya-samyujam--to those who are completely free from deceit; sva-sadhu-krtyam--proper compensation; vibudha-ayusa--with a lifetime as long as that of the demigods; api--although; vah--to you; yah--who; ma--Me; abhajan--have worshiped; durjaya-geha-srnkhalah--the chains of household life, which are difficult to overcome; samvrscya--cutting; tat--that; vah--of you; pratiyatu--let it be returned; sadhuna--by the good activity itself.
"O gopis, I am not able to repay My debt for your spotless service, even within a lifetime of Brahma. Your connection with Me is beyond reproach. You have worshiped Me, cutting off all domestic ties, which are difficult to break. Therefore please let your own glorious deeds be your compensation."
This verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.32.22) was spoken by Sri Krsna Himself when He returned to the gopis upon hearing their songs of separation.
tabe ye dekhiye gopira nija-dehe prita
seho ta' krsnera lagi, janiha niscita
tabe--now; ye--whatever; dekhiye--we see; gopira--of the gopis; nija-dehe--in their own bodies; prita--affection; seho--that; ta'--certainly; krsnera lagi--for Lord Krsna; janiha--know; niscita--for certain.
Now, whatever affection we see the gopis show in their own bodies, know it for certain to be only for the sake of Lord Krsna.
The selfless love of Godhead exhibited by the gopis cannot have any parallel. We should not, therefore, misunderstand the carefulness of the gopis in their personal decoration. The gopis dressed themselves as beautifully as possible, just to make Krsna happy by seeing them. They had no ulterior desires. They dedicated their bodies, and everything they possessed, to the service of Sri Krsna, taking for granted that their bodies were meant for His enjoyment. They dressed themselves on the understanding that Krsna would be happy by seeing and touching them.
"O Arjuna, there are no greater receptacles of deep love for Me than the gopis, who cleanse and decorate their bodies because they consider them Mine."
This verse is spoken by Lord Krsna in the Adi Purana.
ara eka adbhuta gopi-bhavera svabhava
buddhira gocara nahe yahara prabhava
ara--another; eka--one; adbhuta--wonderful; gopi-bhavera--of the emotion of the gopis; svabhava--nature; buddhira--of the intelligence; gocara--an object of perception; nahe--is not; yahara--of which; prabhava--the power.
There is another wonderful feature of the emotion of the gopis. Its power is beyond the comprehension of the intelligence.
gopi-gana kare yabe krsna-darasana
sukha-vancha nahi, sukha haya koti-guna
gopi-gana--the gopis; kare--do; yabe--when; krsna-darasana--seeing Lord Krsna; sukha-vancha--desire for happiness; nahi--there is not; sukha--the happiness; haya--there is; koti-guna--ten million times.
When the gopis see Lord Krsna, they derive unbounded bliss, although they have no desire for such pleasure.
gopika-darsane krsnera ye ananda haya
taha haite koti-guna gopi asvadaya
gopika-darsane--in seeing the gopis; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; ye--whatever; ananda--joy; haya--there is; taha haite--than that; koti-guna--ten million times more; gopi--the gopis; asvadaya--taste.
The gopis taste a pleasure ten million times greater than the pleasure Lord Krsna derives from seeing them.
The wonderful characteristics of the gopis are beyond imagination. They have no desire for personal satisfaction, yet when Krsna is happy by seeing them, that happiness of Krsna makes the gopis a million times more happy than Krsna Himself.
tan sabara nahi nija-sukha-anurodha
tathapi badhaye sukha, padila virodha
tan sabara--of all of them; nahi--not; nija-sukha--for their own happiness; anurodha--entreaty; tathapi--still; badhaye--increases; sukha--happiness; padila--happened; virodha--contradiction.
The gopis have no inclination for their own enjoyment, and yet their joy increases. That is indeed a contradiction.
e virodhera eka matra dekhi samadhana
gopikara sukha krsna-sukhe paryavasana
e--this; virodhera--of the contradiction; eka--one; matra--only; dekhi--I see; samadhana--solution; gopikara--of the gopis; sukha--the happiness; krsna-sukhe--in the happiness of Lord Krsna; paryavasana--the conclusion.
For this contradiction I see only one solution: the joy of the gopis lies in the joy of their beloved Krsna.
The situation of the gopis is perplexing, for although they did not want personal happiness, it was imposed upon them. The solution to this perplexity is that Sri Krsna's sense of happiness is limited by the happiness of the gopis. Devotees at Vrndavana therefore try to serve the gopis, namely Radharani and Her associates. If one gains the favor of the gopis, he easily gains the favor of Krsna because on the recommendation of the gopis Krsna at once accepts the service of a devotee. Lord Caitanya, therefore, wanted to please the gopis instead of Krsna. But His contemporaries misunderstood Him, and for this reason Lord Caitanya renounced the order of householder life and became a sannyasi.
gopika-darsane krsnera badhe praphullata
se madhurya badhe yara nahika samata
gopika-darsane--in seeing the gopis; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; badhe--increases; praphullata--the cheerfulness; se--that; madhurya--sweetness; badhe--increases; yara--of which; nahika--there is not; samata--equality.
When Lord Krsna sees the gopis, His joy increases, and His unparalleled sweetness increases also.
amara darsane krsna paila eta sukha
ei sukhe gopira praphulla anga-mukha
amara darsane--in seeing me; krsna--Lord Krsna; paila--obtained; eta--so much; sukha--happiness; ei--this; sukhe--in happiness; gopira--of the gopis; praphulla--full-blown; anga-mukha--bodies and faces.
[The gopis think:] "Krsna has obtained so much pleasure by seeing me." That thought increases the fullness and beauty of their faces and bodies.
gopi-sobha--the beauty of the gopis; dekhi'--seeing; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sobha--the beauty; badhe--increases; yata--as much as; krsna-sobha--the beauty of Lord Krsna; dekhi'--seeing; gopira--of the gopis; sobha--the beauty; badhe--increases; tata--that much.
The beauty of Lord Krsna increases at the sight of the beauty of the gopis. And the more the gopis see Lord Krsna's beauty, the more their beauty increases.
ei-mata paraspara pade hudahudi
paraspara badhe, keha mukha nahi mudi
In this way a competition takes place between them in which no one acknowledges defeat.
kintu krsnera sukha haya gopi-rupa-gune
tanra sukhe sukha-vrddhi haye gopi-gane
kintu--but; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sukha--the happiness; haya--is; gopi-rupa-gune--in the qualities and beauty of the gopis; tanra--of Him; sukhe--in the happiness; sukha-vrddhi--increase of happiness; haye--there is; gopi-gane--in the gopis.
Krsna, however, derives pleasure from the beauty and good qualities of the gopis. And when the gopis see His pleasure, the joy of the gopis increases.
ataeva sei sukha krsna-sukha pose
ei hetu gopi-preme nahi kama-dose
ataeva--therefore; sei--that; sukha--happiness; krsna-sukha--the happiness of Lord Krsna; pose--nourishes; ei--this; hetu--reason; gopi-preme--in the love of the gopis; nahi--there is not; kama-dose--the fault of lust.
Therefore we find that the joy of the gopis nourishes the joy of Lord Krsna. For that reason the fault of lust is not present in their love.
By looking at the beautiful gopis Krsna becomes enlivened, and this enlivens the gopis, whose youthful faces and bodies blossom. This competition of increasing beauty between the gopis and Krsna, which is without limitations, is so delicate that sometimes mundane moralists mistake these dealings to be purely amorous. But these affairs are not at all mundane, because the gopis' intense desire to satisfy Krsna surcharges the entire scene with pure love of Godhead, with not a spot of sexual indulgence.
upetya--having mounted their palaces; pathi--on the path; sundari-tatibhih abhih--by the women of Vraja; abhyarcitam--who is worshiped; smita-ankura-karambitaih--intermingled with the sprouts of gentle smiles; natat--dancing; apanga--of glances; bhangi-sataih--with a hundred manners; stana-stavaka--the multitude of breasts; sancarat--wandering about; nayana--of the two eyes; cancarika--like bees; ancalam--Him whose corners; vraje--in Vraja; vijayinam--coming; bhaje--I worship; vipina-desatah--from the forest; kesavam--Lord Kesava.
"I worship Lord Kesava. Coming back from the forest of Vraja, He is worshiped by the gopis, who mount the roofs of their palaces and meet Him on the path with a hundred manners of dancing glances and gentle smiles. The corners of His eyes wander, like large black bees, around the gopis' breasts."
This statement appears in the Kesavastaka (8) of the Stava-mala, compiled by Srila Rupa Gosvami.
ara eka gopi-premera svabhavika cihna
ye prakare haya prema kama-gandha-hina
ara--another; eka--one; gopi-premera--of the love of the gopis; svabhavika--natural; cihna--symptom; ye--which; prakare--in the way; haya--is; prema--the love; kama-gandha-hina--without a trace of lust.
There is another natural symptom of the gopis' love that shows it to be without a trace of lust.
gopi-preme kare krsna-madhuryera pusti
madhurye badhaya prema hana maha-tusti
gopi-preme--the love of the gopis; kare--does; krsna-madhuryera--of the sweetness of Lord Krsna; pusti--nourishment; madhurye--the sweetness; badhaya--causes to increase; prema--the love; hana--being; maha-tusti--greatly pleased.
The love of the gopis nourishes the sweetness of Lord Krsna. That sweetness in turn increases their love, for they are greatly satisfied.
tanha nahi nija-sukha-vanchara sambandha
priti-visaya-anande--in the joy of the object of love; tat--of that love; asraya-ananda--the joy of the abode; tanha--that; nahi--not; nija-sukha-vanchara--of desire for one's own happiness; sambandha--relationship.
The happiness of the abode of love is in the happiness of the object of that love. This is not a relationship of desire for personal gratification.
nirupadhi prema yanha, tanha ei riti
priti-visaya-sukhe asrayera priti
nija-premanande krsna-sevananda badhe
se anandera prati bhaktera haya maha-krodhe
nirupadhi--without identification; prema--love; yanha--which; tanha--that; ei--this; riti--style; priti-visaya--of the object of love; sukhe--in the happiness; asrayera--of the abode of that love; priti--the pleasure; nija--one's own; prema--of love; anande--by the joy; krsna--to Lord Krsna; seva-ananda--the joy of service; badhe--is obstructed; se--that; anandera prati--toward the joy; bhaktera--of the devotee; haya--is; maha-krodhe--great anger.
Whenever there is unselfish love, that is its style. The reservoir of love derives pleasure when the lovable object is pleased. When the pleasure of love interferes with the service of Lord Krsna, the devotee becomes angry toward such ecstasy.
As mentioned above, the gopis are the predominated lovers, and Sri Krsna is the predominator, the beloved. The love of the predominated nourishes the love of the predominator. The gopis had no desire for selfish enjoyment. Their feeling of happiness was indirect, for it was dependent on the pleasure of Krsna. Causeless love of Godhead is always so. Such pure love is possible only when the predominated is made happy by the happiness of the predominator. Such unadulterated love is exemplified when the lover deprecates her happiness in service that hinders her from discharging it.
anga--of the limbs; stambha-arambham--the beginning of stupefaction; uttungayantam--which was causing him to reach; prema-anandam--the joy of love; darukah--Daruka, the Lord's chariot driver; na--not; abhyanandat--welcomed; kamsa-arateh--of Lord Krsna, the enemy of Kamsa; vijane--in fanning with a camara fan; yena--by which; saksat--clearly; aksodiyan--greater; antarayah--obstacle; vyadhayi--has been created.
"Sri Daruka did not relish his ecstatic feelings of love, for they caused his limbs to become stunned and thus obstructed his service of fanning Lord Krsna."
This verse is from Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.2.62).
govinda--of Lord Govinda; preksana--the seeing; aksepi--hindering; baspa-pura--groups of tears; abhivarsinam--which cause to rain; uccaih--powerfully; anindat--condemned; anandam--the bliss; aravinda-vilocana--the lotus-eyed Radharani.
"The lotus-eyed Radharani powerfully condemned the ecstatic love that caused a flow of tears that hindered Her sight of Govinda."
This verse is also from Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.3.54).
ara suddha-bhakta krsna-prema-seva vine
sva-sukhartha salokyadi na kare grahane
ara--and; suddha-bhakta--the pure devotee; krsna-prema--out of love for Lord Krsna; seva--service; vine--without; sva-sukha-artha--for the purpose of one's own pleasure; salokya-adi--the five types of liberation, beginning from salokya (residing on the same spiritual planet as the Lord); na kare--do not do; grahane--acceptance.
Furthermore, pure devotees never forsake the loving service of Lord Krsna to aspire for their own personal pleasure through the five kinds of liberation.
A pure devotee of Krsna who loves Him exclusively will flatly refuse to accept any sort of liberation, beginning from merging in the body of the Lord and extending to the other varieties of liberation, such as equality of form, opulence or abode and the opulence of living near the Lord.
mat--of Me; guna--of the qualities; sruti-matrena--only by hearing; mayi--to Me; sarva-guha--in all hearts; asaye--who am situated; manah-gatih--the movement of the mind; avicchinna--unobstructed; yatha--just as; ganga-ambhasah--of the celestial waters of the Ganges; ambudhau--to the ocean.
"Just as the celestial waters of the Ganges flow unobstructed into the ocean, so when My devotees simply hear of Me, their minds come to Me, who resides in the hearts of all."
nirgunasya hy udahrtam
ya bhaktih purusottame
laksanam--the symptom; bhakti-yogasya--of devotional service; nirgunasya--beyond the three modes of nature; hi--certainly; udahrtam--is cited; ahaituki--causeless; avyavahita--uninterrupted; ya--which; bhaktih--devotional service; purusottame--to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
"These are the characteristics of transcendental loving service to Purusottama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead: it is causeless, and it cannot be obstructed in any way."
samipyaikatvam apy uta
diyamanam na grhnanti
vina mat-sevanam janah
salokya--being on the same planet as Me; sarsti--having opulence equal to Mine; sarupya--having the same form as Me; samipya--having direct association with Me; ekatvam--oneness with Me; api--even; uta--or; diyamanam--being given; na--not; grhnanti--accept; vina--without; mat-sevanam--My service; janah--the devotees.
"My devotees do not accept salokya, sarsti, sarupya, samipya or oneness with Me--even if I offer these liberations--in preference to serving Me."
These three verses from Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.29.11-13) were spoken by Lord Krsna in the form of Kapiladeva.
mat-sevaya pratitam te
necchanti sevaya purnah
kuto 'nyat kala-viplutam
mat--of Me; sevaya--by service; pratitam--obtained; te--they; salokya-adi--liberation, beginning salokya; catustayam--four kinds of; na icchanti--do not desire; sevaya--by service; purnah--complete; kutah--where; anyat--other things; kala-viplutam--which are lost in time.
"My devotees, having fulfilled their desires by serving Me, do not accept the four kinds of salvation that are easily earned by such service. Why then should they accept any pleasures that are lost in the course of time?"
This verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (9.4.67) was spoken by the Lord in connection with the characteristics of Maharaja Ambarisa. Merging into the existence of the Absolute is as temporary as living in the celestial kingdom. Both of them are controlled by time; neither position is permanent.
kama-gandha-hina svabhavika gopi-prema
nirmala, ujjvala, suddha yena dagdha hema
kama-gandha-hina--without any scent of lust; svabhavika--natural; gopi-prema--the love of the gopis; nirmala--spotless; ujjvala--blazing; suddha--pure; yena--like; dagdha hema--molten gold.
The natural love of the gopis is devoid of any trace of lust. It is faultless, bright and pure, like molten gold.
"O Partha, I speak to you the truth. The gopis are My helpers, teachers, disciples, servants, friends and consorts. I do not know what they are not to Me."
This is a verse from the Gopi-premamrta.
gopika janena krsnera manera vanchita
gopika--the gopis; janena--know; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; manera--of the mind; vanchita--the desired object; prema-seva--of service in love; paripati--perfection; ista-samihita--achievement of the desired goal of life.
The gopis know Krsna's desires, and they know how to render perfect loving service for His enjoyment. They perform their service expertly for the satisfaction of their beloved.
"O Partha, in all the three planetary systems, this earth is especially fortunate, for on earth is the town of Vrndavana. And there the gopis are especially glorious because among them is My Srimati Radharani."
This verse, spoken by Lord Krsna to Arjuna, is cited from the Adi Purana.
radha-saha krida rasa-vrddhira karana
ara saba gopi-gana rasopakarana
radha-saha--with Srimati Radharani; krida--pastimes; rasa--of mellow; vrddhira--of the increase; karana--the cause; ara--the other; saba--all; gopi-gana--gopis; rasa-upakarana--accessories of mellow.
All the other gopis help increase the joy of Krsna's pastimes with Radharani. The gopis act as the instruments of Their mutual enjoyment.
It is said that the gopis are divided into five groups, namely the sakhis, nitya-sakhis, prana-sakhis, priya-sakhis and parama-prestha-sakhis. All these fair-complexioned associates of Srimati Radharani, the Queen of Vrndavana-dhama, are expert artists in evoking erotic sentiments in Krsna. The parama-prestha-sakhis are eight in number, and in the ecstatic dealings of Krsna and Radha they side sometimes with Krsna and at other times with Radharani, just to create a situation in which it appears that they favor one against the other. That makes the exchange of mellows more palatable.
krsnera vallabha radha krsna-prana-dhana
tanha vinu sukha-hetu nahe gopi-gana
krsnera--of Lord Krsna; vallabha--beloved; radha--Srimati Radharani; krsna-prana-dhana--the wealth of the life of Lord Krsna; tanha--Her; vinu--without; sukha-hetu--cause of happiness; nahe--are not; gopi-gana--the gopis.
Radha is the beloved consort of Krsna, and She is the wealth of His life. Without Her, the gopis cannot give Him pleasure.
kamsarir api samsara-
radham adhaya hrdaye
kamsa-arih--Lord Krsna, the enemy of Kamsa; api--moreover; samsara--for the essence of enjoyment (rasa-lila); vasana--by the desire; baddha--tied on; srnkhalam--who was like the chains; radham--Srimati Radharani; adhaya--taking; hrdaye--in the heart; tatyaja--left aside; vraja-sundarih--the other gopis.
"Lord Krsna, the enemy of Kamsa, left aside the other gopis during the rasa dance and took Srimati Radharani to His heart, for She is the helper of the Lord in realizing the essence of His desires."
In this verse from the Gita-govinda (3.1), Jayadeva Gosvami describes Sri Krsna's leaving the rasa-lila to search for Srimati Radharani.
sei radhara bhava lana caitanyavatara
yuga-dharma nama-prema kaila paracara
sei--that; radhara--of Srimati Radharani; bhava--the emotion; lana--taking; caitanya--of Lord Caitanya; avatara--the incarnation; yuga-dharma--the religion of the age; nama-prema--the holy name and love of Godhead; kaila--did; paracara--preaching.
Lord Caitanya appeared with the sentiment of Radha. He preached the dharma of this age--the chanting of the holy name and pure love of God.
sei bhave nija-vancha karila purana
avatarera ei vancha mula-karana
sei--that; bhave--in the mood; nija-vancha--His own desires, karila--did; purana--fulfilling; avatarera--of the incarnation; ei--this; vancha--desire; mula--root; karana--cause.
In the mood of Srimati Radharani, He also fulfilled His own desires. This is the principal reason for His appearance.
visvesam--of all the gopis; anuranjanena--by the act of pleasing; janayan--producing; anandam--the bliss; indivara-sreni--like a row of blue lotuses; syamala--bluish black; komalaih--and soft; upanayan--bringing; angaih--with His limbs; ananga-utsavam--a festival for Cupid; svacchandam--without restriction; vraja-sundaribhih--by the young women of Vraja; abhitah--on both sides; prati-angam--each limb; alingitah--embraced; srngarah--amorous love; sakhi--O friend; murtiman--embodied; iva--like; madhau--in the springtime; mugdhah--perplexed; harih--Lord Hari; kridati--plays.
"My dear friends, just see how Sri Krsna is enjoying the season of spring! With the gopis embracing each of His limbs, He is like amorous love personified. With His transcendental pastimes, He enlivens all the gopis and the entire creation. With His soft bluish-black arms and legs, which resemble blue lotus flowers, He has created a festival for Cupid."
This is a verse from Jayadeva Gosvami's Gita-govinda (1.11).
sri-krsna-caitanya gosani rasera sadana
asesa-visese kaila rasa asvadana
sri-krsna-caitanya gosani--Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; rasera--of mellow; sadana--the residence; asesa-visese--unlimited varieties of enjoyment; kaila--did; rasa--mellow; asvadana--tasting.
Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya is the abode of rasa. He Himself tasted the sweetness of rasa in endless ways.
sei dvare pravartaila kali-yuga-dharma
caitanyera dase jane ei saba marma
sei dvare--in that way; pravartaila--He initiated; kali-yuga--of the Age of Kali; dharma--the religion; caitanyera--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dase--the servant; jane--knows; ei--these; saba--all; marma--secrets.
Thus He initiated the dharma for the Age of Kali. The devotees of Lord Caitanya know all these truths.
Lord Caitanya is Sri Krsna Himself, the absolute enjoyer of the love of the gopis. He Himself assumes the role of the gopis to taste the predominated happiness of transcendental mellows. He appeared in that mode, but simultaneously He propagated the religious process for this age in a most fascinating way. Only the confidential devotees of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu can understand this transcendental secret.
ara yata caitanya-krsnera bhakta-gana
bhakti-bhave sire dhari sabara carana
advaita acarya--Advaita Acarya; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; srinivasa--Srivasa Pandita; gadadhara--Gadadhara Pandita; damodara--Svarupa Damodara; murari--Murari Gupta; haridasa--Haridasa Thakura; ara--other; yata--all; caitanya-krsnera--of Sri Krsna Caitanya; bhakta-gana--devotees; bhakti-bhave--with a devotional attitude; sire--on my head; dhari--I take; sabara--of all of them; carana--the lotus feet.
Bowing down with devotion, I hold on my head the lotus feet of Advaita Acarya, Nityananda, Srivasa Pandita, Gadadhara, Svarupa Damodara, Murari Gupta, Haridasa and all the other devotees of Sri Krsna Caitanya.
The author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta teaches us that we must offer our respectful obeisances to all such pure confidential devotees of Lord Caitanya if we indeed want to know Him in truth.
sastha-slokera ei kahila abhasa
mula slokera artha suna kariye prakasa
sastha-slokera--of the sixth verse; ei--this; kahila--has been spoken; abhasa--a hint; mula slokera--of the original verse; artha--meaning; suna--please hear; kariye prakasa--I am revealing.
I have given a hint of the sixth verse. Now please hear as I reveal the meaning of that original verse.
sri-radhayah pranaya-mahima kidrso vanayaiva-
svadyo yenadbhuta-madhurima kidrso va madiyah
saukhyam casya mad-anubhavatah kidrsam veti lobhat
tad-bhavadhyah samajani saci-garbha-sindhau harinduh
sri-radhayah--of Srimati Radharani; pranaya-mahima--the greatness of the love; kidrsah--of what kind; va--or; anaya--by this one (Radha); eva--alone; asvadyah--to be relished; yena--by that love; adbhuta-madhurima--the wonderful sweetness; kidrsah--of what kind; va--or; madiyah--of Me; saukhyam--the happiness; ca--and; asyah--Her; mat-anubhavatah--from realization of My sweetness; kidrsam--of what kind; va--or; iti--thus; lobhat--from the desire; tat--Her; bhava-adhyah--richly endowed with the emotions; samajani--took birth; saci-garbha--of the womb of Sacidevi; sindhau--in the ocean; hari--Lord Krsna; induh--like the moon.
"Desiring to understand the glory of Radharani's love, the wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her love, and the happiness She feels when She realizes the sweetness of His love, the Supreme Lord Hari, richly endowed with Her emotions, appeared from the womb of Srimati Sacidevi, as the moon appeared from the ocean."
e saba siddhanta gudha,----kahite na yuyaya
na kahile, keha ihara anta nahi paya
Anyone who has captured Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Lord Nityananda Prabhu in his heart will become blissful by hearing all these transcendental conclusions.
e saba siddhanta haya amrera pallava
bhakta-gana-kokilera sarvada vallabha
e--these; saba--all; siddhanta--transcendental conclusions; haya--are; amrera--of mango; pallava--twigs; bhakta-gana--the devotees; kokilera--to those who are just like cuckoo birds; sarvada--always; vallabha--pleasing.
All these conclusions are like the newly grown twigs of a mango tree; they are always pleasing to the devotees, who in this way resemble cuckoo birds.
abhakta-ustrera ithe na haya pravesa
tabe citte haya mora ananda-visesa
abhakta--nondevotee; ustrera--of a camel; ithe--in this; na--not; haya--is there; pravesa--entrance; tabe--then; citte--in my heart; haya--there is; mora--my; ananda-visesa--special jubilation.
The camellike nondevotees cannot enter into these topics. Therefore there is special jubilation in my heart.
ye lagi kahite bhaya, se yadi na jane
iha va-i kiba sukha ache tribhuvane
ye lagi--for the matter of which; kahite bhaya--afraid to speak; se yadi najane--if they do not know; iha va-i--except this; kiba--what; sukha--happiness; ache--there is; tri-bhuvane--in the three worlds.
For fear of them I do not wish to speak, but if they do not understand, then what can be happier in all the three worlds?
ataeva bhakta-gane kari namaskara
nihsanke kahiye, tara hauk camatkara
ataeva--therefore; bhakta-gane--unto the devotees; kari--I offer; namaskara--obeisances; nihsanke--without any doubt; kahiye--I say; tara--of the devotees; hauk--let there be; camatkara--astonishment.
Therefore after offering obeisances to the devotees, for their satisfaction I shall speak without hesitating.
krsnera vicara eka achaye antare
purnananda-purna-rasa-rupa kahe more
krsnera--of Lord Krsna; vicara--consideration; eka--one; achaye--is; antare--within the heart; purna-ananda--complete transcendental bliss; purna-rasa-rupa--full with transcendental mellows; kahe more--they say unto Me.
Once Lord Krsna considered within His heart,"Everyone says that I am complete bliss, full of all rasas.
ama ha-ite anandita haya tribhuvana
amake ananda dibe----aiche kon jana
ama ha-ite--from Me; anandita--pleased; haya--becomes; tri-bhuvana--all the three worlds; amake--unto Me; ananda dibe--will give pleasure; aiche--such; kon jana--what person.
"All the world derives pleasure from Me. Is there anyone who can give Me pleasure?"
ama haite yara haya sata sata guna
sei-jana ahladite pare mora mana
ama haite--than Me; yara--whose; haya--there is; sata sata guna--hundreds of qualities more; sei-jana--that person; ahladite--to give pleasure; pare--is able; mora--My; mana--to the mind.
"One who has a hundred times more qualities than Me could give pleasure to My mind.
ama haite guni bada jagate asambhava
ekali radhate taha kari anubhava
ama haite--than Me; guni--qualified; bada--greater; jagate--in the world; asambhava--there is no possibility; ekali--only; radhate--in Srimati Radharani; taha--that; kari anubhava--I can understand.
"One more qualified than Me is impossible to find in the world. But in Radha alone I feel the presence of one who can give Me pleasure."
koti-kama jini' rupa yadyapi amara
asamordhva-madhurya----samya nahi yara
mora rupe apyayita haya tribhuvana
radhara darsane mora judaya nayana
koti-kama--ten million Cupids; jini'--conquering; rupa--beauty; yadyapi--although; amara--Mine; asama-urdhva--unequaled and unsurpassed; madhurya--sweetness; samya--equality; nahi--there is not; yara--of whom; mora--My; rupe--in beauty; apyayita--pleased; haya--becomes; tri-bhuvana--all three worlds; radhara--of Srimati Radharani; darsane--seeing; mora--My; judaya--satisfies; nayana--eyes.
"Although My beauty defeats the beauty of ten million Cupids, although it is unequaled and unsurpassed and although it gives pleasure to the three worlds, seeing Radharani gives pleasure to My eyes."
mora vamsi-gite akarsaye tri-bhuvana
radhara vacane hare amara sravana
mora--My; vamsi-gite--by the vibration of the flute; akarsaye--I attract; tri-bhuvana--the three worlds; radhara vacane--the words of Srimati Radharani; hare--conquers; amara--My; sravana--hearing power.
"The vibration of My transcendental flute attracts the three worlds, but My ears are enchanted by the sweet words of Srimati Radharani."
yadyapi amara gandhe jagat sugandha
mora citta-prana hare radha-anga-gandha
yadyapi--although; amara--My; gandhe--by the fragrance; jagat--the whole universe; su-gandha--sweet-smelling; mora--My; citta-prana--mind and heart; hare--attracts; radha--of Srimati Radharani; anga--bodily; gandha--flavor.
"Although My body lends fragrance to the entire creation, the scent of Radharani's limbs captivates My mind and heart."
yadyapi amara rase jagat sarasa
radhara adhara-rasa ama kare vasa
yadyapi--although; amara--of Me; rase--by the taste; jagat--the whole world; sa-rasa--is palatable; radhara--of Srimati Radharani; adhara-rasa--the taste of the lips; ama--Me; kare--makes; vasa--submissive.
"Although the entire creation is full of different tastes because of Me, I am charmed by the nectarean taste of the lips of Srimati Radharani."
yadyapi amara sparsa kotindu-sitala
radhikara sparse ama kare susitala
yadyapi--although; amara--My; sparsa--touch; koti-indu--like millions upon millions of moons; sitala--cool; radhikara--of Srimati Radharani; sparse--the touch; ama--Me; kare--makes; su-sitala--very, very cool.
"And although My touch is cooler than ten million moons, I am refreshed by the touch of Srimati Radhika."
ei mata jagatera sukhe ami hetu
radhikara rupa-guna amara jivatu
ei mata--in this way; jagatera--of the whole world; sukhe--in the matter of happiness; ami--I am; hetu--the cause; radhikara--of Srimati Radharani; rupa-guna--beauty and attributes; amara--My; jivatu--life and soul.
"Thus although I am the source for the happiness of the entire world, the beauty and attributes of Sri Radhika are My life and soul.
ei mata anubhava amara pratita
vicari' dekhiye yadi, saba viparita
ei mata--in this way; anubhava--affectionate feelings; amara--My; pratita--understood; vicari'--by consideration; dekhiye--I see; yadi--if; saba--everything; viparita--contrary.
"In this way My affectionate feelings for Srimati Radharani may be understood, but on analysis I find them contradictory."
radhara darsane mora judaya nayana
amara darsane radha sukhe ageyana
"My eyes are fully satisfied when I look upon Srimati Radharani, but by looking upon Me, She becomes even more advanced in satisfaction."
paraspara venu-gite haraye cetana
mora bhrame tamalere kare alingana
paraspara--against each other; venu-gite--the singing of the bamboo; haraye--attracts; cetana--consciousness; mora--of Me; bhrame--in mistake; tamalere--a black tree known as tamala; kare--She does; alingana--embracing.
"The flutelike murmur of the bamboos rubbing against one another steals Radharani's consciousness, for She thinks it to be the sound of My flute. And She embraces a tamala tree, mistaking it for Me."
krsna-alingana painu, janama saphale
krsna-sukhe magna rahe vrksa kari' kole
krsna--of Lord Krsna; alingana--the embrace; painu--I have gotten; janama sa-phale--My birth is now fulfilled; krsna-sukhe--in the matter of pleasing Krsna; magna--immersed; rahe--She remains; vrksa--the tree; kari'--taking; kole--on the lap.
" 'I have gotten the embrace of Sri Krsna,' She thinks, 'so now My life is fulfilled.' Thus She remains immersed in pleasing Krsna, taking the tree in Her arms."
anukula-vate yadi paya mora gandha
udiya padite cahe, preme haya andha
"Even with hundreds of mouths I could not express the transcendental pleasure She derives from My association."
lila-ante sukhe inhara angera madhuri
taha dekhi' sukhe ami apana pasari
lila-ante--at the end of Our pastimes; sukhe--in happiness; inhara--of Srimati Radharani; angera--of the body; madhuri--sweetness; taha--that; dekhi'--seeing; sukhe--in happiness; ami--I; apana--Myself; pasari--forget.
"Seeing the luster of Her complexion after Our pastimes together, I forget My own identity in happiness."
donhara ye sama-rasa, bharata-muni mane
amara vrajera rasa seha nahi jane
donhara--of both; ye--whatever; sama-rasa--equal mellows; bharata-muni--the saintly person named Bharata Muni; mane--accepts; amara--My; vrajera--of Vrndavana; rasa--mellows; seha--he; nahi--not; jane--knows.
"The sage Bharata has said that the mellows of lover and beloved are equal. But he does not know the mellows of My Vrndavana."
According to expert sexologists like Bharata Muni, both male and female enjoy equally in material sexual pleasure. But in the spiritual world the relationships are different, although this is unknown to mundane experts.
anyera sangame ami yata sukha pai
taha haite radha-sukha sata adhikai
anyera--others; sangame--by meeting; ami--I; yata--all; sukha--happiness; pai--get; taha haite--than that; radha-sukha--happiness by association with Radharani; sata--one hundred times; adhikai--increased.
"The happiness I feel when meeting Radharani is a hundred times greater than the happiness I get from meeting others."
nirdhuta--defeats; amrta--of nectar; madhuri--the sweetness; parimalah--whose flavor; kalyani--O most auspicious one; bimba-adharah--red lips; vaktram--face; pankaja-saurabham--which smells like a lotus flower; kuharita--of the sweet sounds made by the cuckoos; slagha--the pride; bhidah--which defeat; te--Your; girah--words; angam--limbs; candana-sitalam--as cool as sandalwood pulp; tanuh--body; iyam--this; saundarya--of beauty; sarva-sva-bhak--which displays the all-in-all; tvam--You; asadya--tasting; mama--My; idam--this; indriya-kulam--all the senses; radhe--O Srimati Radharani; muhuh--again and again; modate--become pleased.
"My dear auspicious Radharani, Your body is the source of all beauty. Your red lips are softer than the sense of immortal sweetness, Your face bears the aroma of a lotus flower, Your sweet words defeat the vibrations of the cuckoo, and Your limbs are cooler than the pulp of sandalwood. All My transcendental senses are overwhelmed in ecstatic pleasure by tasting You, who are completely decorated by beautiful qualities."
This verse, spoken by Lord Krsna to Radha, is recorded in the Lalita-madhava (9.33) of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
rupe--in the beauty; kamsa-harasya--of Krsna, the enemy of Kamsa; lubdha--captivated; nayanam--whose eyes; sparse--in the touch; ati-hrsyat--very much jubilant; tvacam--whose skin; vanyam--in the vibration of the words; utkalita--very eager; srutim--whose ear; parimale--in the fragrance; samhrsta--stolen by happiness; nasa-putam--whose nostrils; arajyat--being completely attracted; rasanam--whose tongue; kila--what to speak of; adhara-pute--to the lips; nyancat--bending down; mukha--whose face; ambhah-ruham--like a lotus flower; dambha--by pride; udgirna--manifesting; maha-dhrtim--great patience; bahih--externally; api--although; prodyat--manifesting; vikara--transformations; akulam--overwhelmed.
"Her eyes are enchanted by the beauty of Lord Krsna, the enemy of Kamsa. Her body thrills in pleasure at His touch. Her ears are always attracted to His sweet voice, Her nostrils are enchanted by His fragrance, and Her tongue hankers for the nectar of His soft lips. She hangs down her lotuslike face, exercising self-control only by pretense, but She cannot help showing the external signs of Her spontaneous love for Lord Krsna."
Thus Srila Rupa Gosvami describes the countenance of Radharani.
tate jani, mote ache kona eka rasa
amara mohini radha, tare kare vasa
tate--thereupon; jani--I can understand; mote--in Me; ache--there is; kona--some; eka--one; rasa--transcendental mellow; amara--My; mohini--captivator; radha--Srimati Radharani; tare--Her; kare vasa--subdues.
"Considering this, I can understand that some unknown mellow in Me controls the entire existence of My captivator, Srimati Radharani."
ama haite radha paya ye jatiya sukha
taha asvadite ami sadai unmukha
"I have appeared in the world to taste mellows. I shall taste the mellows of pure love in various ways."
raga-marge bhakta bhakti kare ye prakare
taha sikhaiba lila-acarana-dvare
raga-marge--on the path of spontaneous love; bhakta--the devotee; bhakti--devotional service; kare--does; ye prakare--in what way; taha--that; sikhaiba--I shall teach; lila--pastimes; acarana-dvare--by means of practical demonstration.
"I shall teach devotional service, which springs from the spontaneous love of the devotees, by demonstrating it Myself with My pastimes."
ei tina trsna mora nahila purana
vijatiya-bhave nahe taha asvadana
ei--these; tina--three; trsna--desires; mora--My; nahila--were not; purana--satisfied; vijatiya--of the opposite partner of a relationship; bhave--in ecstasy; nahe--is not possible; taha--that; asvadana--tasting.
"But these three desires have not been satisfied, for one cannot enjoy them in a contrary position."
radhikara bhava-kanti angikara vine
sei tina sukha kabhu nahe asvadane
radhikara--of Srimati Radharani; bhava-kanti--luster of ecstatic love; angikara--accepting; vine--without; sei--those; tina--three; sukha--happiness; kabhu--at any time; nahe--is not possible; asvadane--tasting.
"Unless I accept the luster of the ecstatic love of Sri Radhika, these three desires cannot be fulfilled."
radha-bhava--the moods of Radharani; angikari'--accepting; dhari'--taking; tara varna--Her bodily complexion; tina--three; sukha--happiness; asvadite--to taste; haba--I shall; avatirna--descend as an incarnation.
"Therefore, assuming Radharani's sentiments and bodily complexion, I shall descend to fulfill these three desires."
sarva-bhave kaila krsna ei ta' niscaya
hena-kale aila yugavatara-samaya
sarva-bhave--in all respects; kaila--made; krsna--Lord Krsna; ei--this; ta'--certainly; niscaya--decision; hena-kale--at this time; aila--came; yuga-avatara--of the incarnation according to the age; samaya--the time.
In this way Lord Krsna came to a decision. Simultaneously, the time came for the incarnation of the age.
sei-kale sri-advaita karena aradhana
tanhara hunkare kaila krsne akarsana
sei-kale--at that time; sri-advaita--Advaita Acarya; karena--performs; aradhana--worship; tanhara--of Him; hunkare--by the tumultuous call; kaila--did; krsne--to Lord Krsna; akarsana--attraction.
At that time Sri Advaita was earnestly worshiping Him. Advaita attracted Him with His loud calls.
pita-mata, guru-gana, age avatari'
radhikara bhava-varna angikara kari'
First Lord Krsna made His parents and elders appear. Then Krsna Himself, with the sentiments and complexion of Radhika, appeared in Navadvipa, like the full moon, from the womb of mother Saci, which is like an ocean of pure milk.
ei ta' karilun sastha slokera vyakhyana
sri-rupa-gosanira pada-padma kari' dhyana
ei ta'--thus; karilun--I have made; sastha slokera--of the sixth verse; vyakhyana--explanation; sri-rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; gosanira--of the master; pada-padma--lotus feet; kari'--doing; dhyana--meditation.
Meditating on the lotus feet of Sri Rupa Gosvami, I have thus explained the sixth verse.
ei dui slokera ami ye karila artha
sri-rupa-gosanira sloka pramana samartha
ei--these; dui--two; slokera--of the verses; ami--I; ye--whatever; karila--gave; artha--the meanings; sri-rupa-gosanira--of Sri Rupa Gosvami; sloka--verse; pramana--evidence; samartha--competent.
I can support the explanation of these two verses [verses 5 and 6 of the First Chapter] with a verse by Sri Rupa Gosvami.
aparam kasyapi pranayi-jana-vrndasya kutuki
rasa-stomam hrtva madhuram upabhoktum kam api yah
rucam svam avavre dyutim iha tadiyam prakatayan
sa devas caitanyakrtir atitaram nah krpayatu
aparam--boundless; kasya api--of someone; pranayi-jana-vrndasya--of the multitude of lovers; kutuki--one who is curious; rasa-stomam--the group of mellows; hrtva--stealing; madhuram--sweet; upabhoktum--to enjoy; kam api--some; yah--who; rucam--luster; svam--own; avavre--covered; dyutim--luster; iha--here; tadiyam--related to Him; prakatayan--manifesting; sah--He; devah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caitanya-akrtih--having the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; atitaram--greatly; nah--unto us; krpayatu--may He show His mercy.
"Lord Krsna desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love of one of His multitude of loving damsels [Sri Radha], and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace."
This is the third verse of the second Caitanyastaka of Srila Rupa Gosvami's Stava-mala.
mangala-acaranam--invoking auspiciousness; krsna-caitanya--of Lord Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tattva-laksanam--symptoms of the truth; prayojanam--necessity; ca--also; avatare--in the matter of His incarnation; sloka--verses; satkaih--by six; nirupitam--ascertained.
Thus the auspicious invocation, the essential nature of the truth of Lord Caitanya, and the need for His appearance have been set forth in six verses.
sri-rupa-raghunatha-pade yara asa
caitanya-caritamrta kahe krsnadasa
sri-rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; raghunatha--Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami; pade--at the lotus feet; yara--whose; asa--expectation; caitanya-caritamrta--the book named Caitanya-caritamrta; kahe--describes; krsna-dasa--Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
Praying at the lotus feet of Sri Rupa and Sri Raghunatha, always desiring their mercy, I, Krsnadasa, narrate Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, following in their footsteps.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, Fourth Chapter, describing the confidential reasons for the appearance of Lord Caitanya.